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Course Overview:

Control System ECE305

COURSE SYNOPSIS

Provides a background of control principles in various engineering applications. Basic mathematical tools such as Laplace transform, transfer function, block diagram, signal flow graph, mathematical modeling of dynamic systems, time response analysis, stability of linear system, root locus and frequency domain analysis are utilized.

LIST OF REFERENCES

Textbook
i.

Ogata K. (2002). Modern Control Engineering (4th Ed), Prentice Hall.


M Gopal. Control System Engineering (2nd Ed), tata mcgraw hill BS Manke Linear Control Systems (4th Ed), khanna publisher. BC KUO Automatic cotrol system (4th ed) printice hall, india

References
ii.

iii.

iv.

TEACHING PLAN
Week
1-2 3-4

Course Content
Introduction to Control Systems The Basics of Control Theory

5-6
7-9 10-11 12-13 14

Mathematical Model of Systems


System Stability Time-Domain Analysis The Root Locus Method Frequency Response Method

15

Controller

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS
i.

Ancient Greece (1 to 300 BC)

Water float regulation, water clock, automatic oil lamp


Temperature control Flyball governor( speed control of steam engine)

ii.

Cornellis Drebbel (17th century)

iii.

James Watt (18th century)

Late 1934, Hazen introduce term servomechanism v. 1940 frequency response methods to design lnear closed loop control system vi. 1960 time domain analysis due to design of digital computers
iv.

CONTROL SYSTEM

Control is the process of causing a system variable to conform to some desired value. Manual control Automatic control (involving machines only). A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response.
Input Signal

Control System
Energy Source

Output Signal

MANUAL VS AUTOMATIC CONTROL

Control is a process of causing a system variable such as temperature or position to conform to some desired value or trajectory, called reference value or trajectory. For example, driving a car implies controlling the vehicle to follow the desired path to arrive safely at a planned destination.
i.

If you are driving the car yourself, you are performing manual control of the car.

ii.

If you use design a machine, or use a computer to do it, then you have built an automatic control system.

EXAMPLES OF CONTROL SYSTEM


Temperature Control System

BUSINESS SYSTEM

Engineering Organizational System

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Component or process to be controlled can be represented by a block diagram. The input-output relationship represents the cause and effect of the process.
Input

Process

Output

Control systems can be classified into two categories: i. Open-loop control system ii. Closed-loop feedback control system

CONTROL SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION

An open-loop control system utilizes an actuating device to control the process directly without using feedback.
Desired Output Response

Actuating Device

Process

Output

A closed-loop feedback control system uses a measurement of the output and feedback of the output signal to compare it with the desired output or reference.
Desired Output Respons e

Compariso n

Controller Measurement

Process

Output

Single Input Single Output (SISO) System

CONTROL SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION


Missile Launcher System

Open-Loop Control System

CONTROL SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION


Missile Launcher System

Closed-Loop Feedback Control System

CONTROL SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION


Desired Output Respons e

Controller

Process

Output Variable s

Measurement

Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) System

WATTS FLYBALL GOVERNOR

HUMAN SYSTEM

The Vetruvian Man

HUMAN SYSTEM
i.
ii.

Pancreas

Regulates blood glucose level Automatically generated to increase the heart rate and oxygen in times of flight

Adrenaline

iii.

Eye
Follow moving object Hand Pick up an object and place it at a predetermined location

iv.

v.

Temperature

Regulated temperature of 36C to 37C

TEMPERATURE CONTROL

Figure shows a schematic diagram of temperature control of an electric furnace. The temperature in the electric furnace is measured by a thermometer, which is analog device. The analog temperature is converted to a digital temperature by an A/D converter. The digital temperature is fed to a controller through an interface. This digital temperature is compared with the programmed input temperature, and if there is any error , the controller sends out a signal to the heater, through an interface, amplifier and relay to bring the furnace temperature to a desired value.

TRANSPORTATION
Car and Driver

Objective: To control direction and speed of car Outputs: Actual direction and speed of car Control inputs: Road markings and speed signs Disturbances: Road surface and grade, wind, obstacles Possible subsystems: The car alone, power steering system, breaking system

TRANSPORTATION

Functional block diagram:


Desired course of travel + Actual course of travel

Error

Driver

Steering Mechanism

Automobile

Measurement, visual and tactile

Time response:

TRANSPORTATION

Consider using a radar to measure distance and velocity to autonomously maintain distance between vehicles.

Automotive: Engine regulation, active suspension, anti-lock breaking system (ABS) Steering of missiles, planes, aircraft and ships at sear.

PROCESS INDUSTRY

Control used to regulate level, pressure and pressure of refinery vessel.

Coordinated control system for a boilergenerator.

For steel rolling mills, the position of rolls is controlled by the thickness of the steel coming off the finishing line.

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Consider a three-axis control system for inspecting individual semiconducting wafers with a highly sensitive camera

HOMES
i.

CD Players

The position of the laser spot in relation to the microscopic pits in a CD is controlled.

ii.

Air-Conditioning System

Uses thermostat and controls room temperature.

CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


i.

System, plant or process

To be controlled
Converts the control signal to a power signal Provides measurement of the system output Represents the desired output

ii.

Actuators

iii.

Sensors

iv.

Reference input

GENERAL CONTROL SYSTEM


Disturbance
Controlle d Signal Manipulate d Variable

Set-point or Reference input + -

Error

Controller

Actuator

+ +

Actual Output

Process

Feedback Signal

Sensor

TURNTABLE SPEED CONTROL

Closed-loop control system:

Block diagram representation:

DISK DRIVE READ SYSTEM

Goal of the system: Position the reader head in order to read data stored on a track. Variables to control: Position of the reader head

DISK DRIVE READ SYSTEM

Specification:
i. ii. iii. iv.

Speed of disk: 1800 rpm to 7200 rpm Distance head-disk: Less than 100nm Position accuracy: 1 m Move the head from track a to track b within 50ms

System Configuration:

ASSIGNMENT 1
Describe the principle of operation for Watts Flyball Governor. Include the relevant block diagram and indicate the functional components of the system. Your report should be no more than 2 pages long. The report should be submitted on Wednesday (21/10/2000) during the tutorial session.

FURTHER READING

Chapter 1
i.

ii.

Nise N.S. (2004). Control System Engineering (4th Ed), John Wiley & Sons. Dorf R.C., Bishop R.H. (2001). Modern Control Systems (9th Ed), Prentice Hall.

The right half of the brain controls the left half of the body. This means that only left handed people are in their right mind

THE END