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SPECIAL CURVES

CONICS SECTIONS ELLIPSE PARABOLA HYPERBOLA

Topics to be covered in the class
Curves used in engineering practices: Conics Construction of ellipse, parabola and hyperbola by eccentricity method

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Introduction The section obtained by the intersection of a right circular cone by a cutting plane in different positions to the axis of a cone are called conics or conical sections. 2. Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola . 4. 3. Types of curves produced are 1.

Inclined to the axis and parallel to generator also passes through the base. Ellipse 3 Parabola 4 Hyper bola . Shape of the section Circle 2 Inclined to the axis and not a parallel to any generator. it cuts generator.Position of cutting planes Sl. 1 Position of cutting planes Perpendicular to axis of the cone. Here the axis is cut by the plane. Inclined to the axis at an angle smaller than the angle of generators to the axis and passes through the base.no.

Definition 1. 2. It may be defines as locus of a point which moves in such a way that its distance from a fixed point( focus) is always in a constant ratio with its perpendicular distance from a fixed straight line(directrix). The ratio FP/QP is constant .

vertex . Directrix : The fixed straight line. Vertex: The point of intersection of the conic section with the axis. Axis: The line perpendicular to the directrix and passing through the focus .Terminologies Focus: The fixed point on the axis .

However. This is because every circle. 3. The electrons of an atom move in an approximately elliptical orbit with the nucleus at one focus . the ellipse is the curve most often "seen" in everyday life . 5. 2. 4.Ellipse 1. appears elliptical . The orbits of the planets are ellipses . viewed obliquely. The circle is the simplest of all curves.

Pressure vessels 5. Arches 4. Dams 3. Reflectors .Applications of Ellipse 1. Bridges 2.

Methods to draw Ellipse 1. Trammel 3. Concentric circles 5. Four centre 7. Foci 6. Eccentricity . Major axis and minor axis 4. Parallelogram 8. Pin and string 2.

The focus F is drawn on the axis at a given distance. here the X is 4 units and perpendicular line Y is drawn from the point X for 3 units. Directrix (vertical line) DD’ and AB (horizontal line) is drawn. b. (e= ¾) . In the CC’ line X is drawn at any distance .Eccentricity method Step – 1 a. D F C X C’ D’ Y Eccentricity value is ¾ X axis is 4 units and y axis is 3 units { we need to add 4+3 = 7 units in AB} .

Then from point S perpendicular line is drawn and mark as point as vertex sv1 xy fv 3   1 1  cv1 cx cv1 4 V1. From the focus point F1 the straight line is drawn at an angle 45o intersect the CY line and the intersected point marked as T.Step – 3 a. V1 F1 X V2 C   Y C’ S D’ T   45O . Now . b. c. The perpendicular line is D drawn from the point T it intersects the CC’ that point is Vertex V2 . From the focus point F the straight line intersect CY at 45o and mark as point S. The C and Y is connected by the straight line.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Step – 3 a. The vertex V1 and V2 are measured and divided into equal segments. b. Then lines are named as 1 1’ and 2 2’ and so on up to the D V1 F1 X V2 vertex V2 . C  1’ 2’  3’ 4’ Y 5’ C’ S D’ 6’ 7’ 8’ 9’ T .

The arc is connected by a line and D 2 X V1 1 F1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 V2 it represents the ellipse. b. The same is carried out for the rest of the points.Step – 4 a. C   C’ S D’ 1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ Y 5’ 6’ 7’ 8’ 9’ T . c. The 1 &1’ distance is measured and focus F1 as centre arc is drawn in the vertical line.

From the point Q the line is Q C 2 X V1 1 F1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 drawn to the ellipse. The perpendicular S D’ 1’ 2’ 3’ line is drawn form the point P 4’ Y 5’ 6’ is the normal 7’ 8’ 9’ T . a. b. the normal and tangent to be drawn at any point in the N ellipse.Now. The point marked as P ( tangent) . The line is extended from the D P focus point F to the directrix DD’ and marked as Q. (any point   V2 in the ellipse ) C’ c.

Parabola It is a general plane curve generated by a point moving so that at any position. its distance from a fixed point( focus) is always exactly equal to its distance from a fixed straight line(Directrix) .

. Latus rectum – the double ordinate. Ordinate – any line perpendicular to the axis 2. 3. if passing through the focus . Double ordinate – the extension ordinate up to other side of the parabolic curve.Terminologies 1.

it follows a parabolic path. 2. 3. The parabola is used by engineers in designing some suspension bridges. This property is used in the design of flashlights and headlights.Parabola 1. When a golf ball is hit into the air. .

Rectangle 4. Tangent 5. Eccentricity .Methods to draw Parabola 1. Parallelogram 2. Offset 3. Envelop 6.

Eccentricity method Procedure is same as the ellipse. Go through the ellipse steps with eccentricity as 1 .

B is the distance from the center to the y intercept. It is plane curve generated by a point moving so that the difference of its distances from two fixed points. . called the focuses or foci is a constant. The mathematical equation for a hyperbola is x2 /a2 – y2 /b2 =1 Where a is the distance from the center to the x intercept .Hyperbola 1. 2.

Terminologies Transverse axis – The horizontal axis equal to the distance between two vertices of a pair hyperbola Conjugate axis – The line perpendicular to the transverse axis and passing through the centre of transverse axis. They never touch the curve but approach very nearer to the curves. Foci – The two fixed points which lie on the extension of transverse axis. Asymptotes – The straight lines which intersect each other at centre of the transverse axis o. .

and so there are applications of the hyperbola in navigation (GPS systems) 2. Sound waves travel in hyperbolic paths. The hyperbolic shape of water cooling towers helps the tower do its job more efficiently .Applications 1.

Eccentricity method .