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# Normal Distribution

When random variation conforms to a particular probability distribution. Bell Curve Completely described by two parameters Empirical Rule

## Standard Normal Distribution

Special case of normal distribution Occurs when a normal random variable has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one Z-score is the normal random variable z = (X - ) / = equation for transforming a random variable x into a z-score

Example
The distribution of bill length in sparrows is normally distributed with mean 3.1 mm and standard deviation 1.2mm. What is the probability that the bill of a randomly chosen sparrow is longer than 5.5mm? 0.0228 First, convert the 5.5 mm to a standard normal deviate. Z=(5.5 - 3.1) / 1.2 = 2 Next find the probability that a standard normal deviate is greater than this Z. The probability that Z is greater than 2 is 0.0228. Therefore the probability that a bird has a bill length greater than 5.5 is 0.0228.

Confidence Interval
Describes an uncertainty associated with a sampling method The range of the confidence interval is defined by the sample statistic + margin of error Identify a sample statistic Select a confidence level Find the margin of error Find standard error Find critical value Compute margin of error Specify the confidence interval

Point Estimate
Estimating a parameter from a probability distribution Based on observed data from the distribution It is the best single value for estimating a population parameter
Example: x is a point estimate for s is a point estimate for

## Point Estimate found from Confidence Interval

Point estimate gives a single value Confidence interval gives a range Confidence level gives a percentage of reliability

Confidence Interval
Single observation of random interval Expresses the uncertainty and precision with the sampling method Identifying a point estimate creating an interval around it More reliable than the point estimate

## Confidence Interval cont.

Tells researchers about single observations Calculated from survey observations Provides location and precision of measure

## Variance from Confidence Interval

View of the sample distribution Unbiased view of the population

References
Confidence Intervals for a Mean. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ltcconline.net/greenl/courses/201/estimation/confintmean.htm Statistics, Probability, and Survey Sampling. (2013). Retrieved from http://stattrek.com/ Triola, M. M., & Triola, M. F. (2006). Biostatistics for the biological and health sciences. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley/Pearson.