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Normal Distribution

When random variation conforms to a particular probability distribution. Bell Curve Completely described by two parameters Empirical Rule

Standard Normal Distribution


Special case of normal distribution Occurs when a normal random variable has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one Z-score is the normal random variable z = (X - ) / = equation for transforming a random variable x into a z-score

Example
The distribution of bill length in sparrows is normally distributed with mean 3.1 mm and standard deviation 1.2mm. What is the probability that the bill of a randomly chosen sparrow is longer than 5.5mm? 0.0228 First, convert the 5.5 mm to a standard normal deviate. Z=(5.5 - 3.1) / 1.2 = 2 Next find the probability that a standard normal deviate is greater than this Z. The probability that Z is greater than 2 is 0.0228. Therefore the probability that a bird has a bill length greater than 5.5 is 0.0228.

Confidence Interval
Describes an uncertainty associated with a sampling method The range of the confidence interval is defined by the sample statistic + margin of error Identify a sample statistic Select a confidence level Find the margin of error Find standard error Find critical value Compute margin of error Specify the confidence interval

Point Estimate
Estimating a parameter from a probability distribution Based on observed data from the distribution It is the best single value for estimating a population parameter
Example: x is a point estimate for s is a point estimate for

Point Estimate found from Confidence Interval


Point estimate gives a single value Confidence interval gives a range Confidence level gives a percentage of reliability

Confidence Interval
Single observation of random interval Expresses the uncertainty and precision with the sampling method Identifying a point estimate creating an interval around it More reliable than the point estimate

Confidence Interval cont.


Tells researchers about single observations Calculated from survey observations Provides location and precision of measure

Variance from Confidence Interval


View of the sample distribution Unbiased view of the population

References
Confidence Intervals for a Mean. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ltcconline.net/greenl/courses/201/estimation/confintmean.htm Statistics, Probability, and Survey Sampling. (2013). Retrieved from http://stattrek.com/ Triola, M. M., & Triola, M. F. (2006). Biostatistics for the biological and health sciences. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley/Pearson.