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• Physical, chemical, thermal, bacterial or other alterations of a feed ingredients before it is fed. Purpose of processing • To improve palatability • To improve digestibility • To alter nutrient composition • To detoxify
• • • •
To increase voluntary intake Less wastage of hard and fibrous parts Increased density Less space required for storage and convenient handling
• Processing of fodder classified in to, Conservation of green fodder • Hay and silage making Quality improvement
wet /green fodder preserved by organic acids lactic acid Basic principle • Convert the sugar in the ensiled fodder in to lactic acid. • Reduces the ph – 4.0 or lower • Anaerobic environment
. it is rejected by animals • Storage of dry fodder requires more space.WHY ENSILING • Animals prefer soft green fodder than dry grass • When the grass is over matured with stems. Large amount of green grass can be stored in a small silo pits of one cubic meter.
– Dry the grass in the field for about 4 to 5 hours. – Dissolve one kg salt in five litres of water. – Prepare molasses solution in a bucket by dissolving five kg molasses in 20 litres of water.Silage making – Cut the grass at the early flowering stage. . – Cut into small bits of 10 to 15cm length with a chaff cutter or a knife.
– Cover the bottom and sides of the pit with dry leaves or straw – Fill the pit with grass for about one foot height and press it well. . – Every one cubic meter of pit can hold 600 kg of green grass. – The size of the pit should be at least one meter in depth and one meter in diameter.– Make a circular pit in an elevated area.
– Sprinkle molasses over it. – Press the grass well to remove any air space inside. – On the top. – Repeat the filling in the same way till the entire pit is filled. . – Add another one foot layer of grass. cover the grass with a layer of dry leaves. – Sprinkle salt solution with the help of a rose can.
– Silage will be ready after two months. – Care should be taken to protect the pit from rain water.– Cover the pit with mud for about one foot height to protect the pit from air and water. . – Pit can be opened even after four months.
. Maize. Bajra Oats and Barely.Crops suitable for silage • Excellent silage may be made from crops like Jowar.
Jowar and oats crops • In case of bajra is best harvested at blooming stage • Hybrid napier and Guinea grass should be harvested at 1.Stage of harvesting the crop: • Flowering to milk stage is recommended for making silage from maize. .25 meter height stage.
types of silos • • • • pit silo tower silo trench silo Bunker silo .
• Pit Silo Dig a circular or rectangular pit of desirable dimension. . • one cubic meter of the silo can have 650 to 700kg settled silage.
• During longer period of wilting considerable losses of dry matter as high as 6 to 10 per cent • During fermentation. • respiration. fermentation and effluent losses take place. 4-12% .Losses during silage making • During ensiling. gaseous losses – 5-30% • Molding losses.
increase compactness Silo should be air-tight after filling Fermentation starts with in hour Accelerates at 2-3 days Terminates after three weeks .Important points for silage making • • • • • • • Crop and plant material rich in soluble sugar DM -15-30% Chaffing.
leeching.Merits & demerits • It contain more nutrient • Loss due to shattering. and bleaching are avoided De merits • It requires labor • Construction cost • Handling and transportation is more effort .
Hay making Basic principle: • Reduce the moisture • Storage without spoilage • Without nutrient loss • Moisture is less than 15% • Crops with thin stem and many leaves .
Types 1. Natural drying 2. Artificial drying • Forage can be dried in barn by flowing hot air Adv: • Nutrient loss is reduced • Forage can be harvested irrespective of weather condition Dis adv.expensive .
Why Hay making • The drying and storing of high quality forage after harvesting at proper stage • supply of high digestible feed with highly protein and calorific values all the year round • It reduces the amount of concentrates • 130 kg of hay containing 90 per cent dry matter would be worth as much as 780 kg of green forage containing 15 per cent dry matter the same crop .
• The storage losses are less than those in silage. • It reduces the labour involved in handling and transport green forage .
Stage of harvesting the crop • Cut berseem or lucerne in the pre-blossom stage • Chop the forage while still moist (fresh or wilted) with a chaff-cutter • Chopping need not be too fine. The best length of the cut is about 5 to 8 cm. .
. • The usual threshing floors.• Spread the wet chopped forage in the sun on a smooth hard surface in a thin layer not exceeding 12 to 15cm in height. polythene sheet etc. can be used for drying of forages. • Stir the drying forage every 2-3 hours • When thoroughly dry(usually) after 2-3 days. roof tops.
• When hay balers become available. the chopped and dried forage can be baled.depending on. • The frequency of stirring. • Baling reduce the storage space and facilitates the transport of the forage to the market . • the intensity of the sun and the movement of the air.
viz. rice bean and velvet bean . oat. cowpea. legumes. thin Napier. peas. lucerne. thin guinea. anjan. berseem. Rhodes grass. field bean.CROPS SUITABLE FOR HAY-MAKING • thin-stemmed grasses namely.
Maturity when cut Method of handling Moisture content Weather condition during harvest .Losses in hay making • • • • Depends on.
• Respiration by living plant cell after harvesting • Losses due to shattering and dropping of leaves • Leaching – during rain. soluble nutrient loss • Bleaching of hay –excessive exposure to sunshine during drying. Especially carotene. • Fermentation and moulding –nutrient losses 15-50% .
For quality improvement methods PHYSICAL chaffing bhoosa making grinding CHEMICAL acid tt alkali tt ammoniation BIOLOGICAL bacterial method fungal tt physico chemical NaOH pelleting NaOH STEAM densification water treatment steam treatment irradiation .
• 1.Chaffing • MACHINES – Hand operated – 75-100kg/hour @40rpm – Power operated – 200-250kg/hour @ 100rpm: 5-10hp – 1000-2000kg/hour • • • • • • 1-4 cm long pieces Increases intake and reduces the scope of hard parts Adv Wastage avoid Easy handling Increase surface area .
Bhoosa making • Long straw broken in to various size-5 cm length • More palatable.for the densification of fodder in the form of pellets • More uniform mixing of fodder with other ingredients . soft 3.Grinding • Straw.2.chaffed into 4-5 cm • Grind in a hammer mill.
• Type of material • Desired final density • Cost of processing • Market value .Densification • Compaction of forages • Baling. pelleting Depends upon. block making.
Need for densification Densification • Bulky roughages are compressed several times and volume reduced to less than 1/3 of the fodder • Bulk density of straw is 50-75 kg/m3 • Concentrates.500 kg/m3 .
size(10*25*5 cm) • Binder is used .• A)Baling • Compressed product of about half cubic meter to 1 cubic meter – pressing with a machine • Facilitate easy transport • B)Block making • Blocks are similar in baling .
Adv : • Less pre treatment • Less pressure • Less energy Dis adv: • Densification is not sufficient .
increases digestibility Adv : • High degree of densification Dis adv: • More energy for grinding and extruding .• C)Pelleting • Due to grinding rate of passage increases .
• Utilized by rumen micro.Wafering or cube making • 5-8 cm cube shape prepared by compressing roughage through the die of desired size and shape Irradiation • X-rays. gamma rays • Reduces chain length of fibrous CHOformation of oligosaccharides.organisms .eff.
• Basic principle. increased voluntary feed intake Dis adv. cost of treatment .digestability depressed .enhance the rate of passage. radical formation • 100 M rad • Increasing the availability of nutrient Adv.molecular depolarization.
removes oxalates. potassium • Water soaking • > 3 hrs soaking in water.• Water washing • Deeped in water for about 2 hrs.water is decanted • Washing is repeated twice • Paddy straw.swelling and soften .
Adv: • rumen microbes and their enzymes to penetrate quicker in a pre wetted feed • Less abrasive to mouth Dis adv: • Loss of nutrients (soluble carbohydrates) • DM loss 8-14% -3 days .
• Steam processing • Steam is injected in the stacked roughage for sufficient time to make moist • 1-42 kg/cm2-1.5 min • Digestibility increases 26-47% • Increase moisture content .
CHEMICAL PROCESSING Objective: • Increase digestibility • Increase feed intake Mechanism of action • Solubilisation of cell wall components • Disruption of complexes of lignin .
Urea treatment • Only chemical treatment with practical potential for farmers • Relatively safe chemicals • Easy available • Easy to dissolve in water .
Urea treatment depend upon • Concentration of urea • Duration of treatment • Amount of water • Way of stacking .
46.Urea • • • • • • • • White crystalline N concentration.ammonia+co2. urease enzyme Ammonia+H2O -ammonium hydroxide It enhances the nutritional quality of starw Improved palatability Improve digestability .6% Equal to cp is -290 g Urea.
Water • Essential for hydrolysis of urea • Required to form alkali • 50-60 litres.Factors affecting process 1.not produce sufficient ammonia 2.100 kg of starw • lower. Urea concentration: • 4 kg urea.4 kg of urea .
ammoniation process is better • Less chance of mould growth . Method of spraying • Uniform spraying is impartant • Gardeners sprinkler • Use broom with bucket 4. Compactness of straw • Adv.3.
5. Duration of treatments Outside temp (oC) Below 5 5-15 15-30 Above 30 Treatment time (weeks) More than 8 4-8 1-4 Less than 1 .
6. Storage method • Covered with layer of untreated straw • Coconut leaves. Type of crop: • Poor quality-highly effective for treatments 7. banana leaves • Empty urea bag .
handling and transportation of acid • Reduce the palatability .• 1.7% HCL • Digestibility increases 26-36% • Store for 3-4 weeks • Dis adv.ACID TREATMENT H2SO4: • Hydrolyse the hemi cellulose –release sugar • Pre-treatment for SCP • 1-5% H2SO4 at 120oC HCL: • 1.
Sodium sulphite. Sodiumhypochlorite and Bleeching powder . ozone. Sulphur dioxide.• • • • • • • Oxidizing agentsAlkaline hydrogen peroxide. Sodium thiosulphate.
• Reduce the lignin content • Break the bond between lignin and carbohydrates Dis adv: • It may be hazardous • Cost Uses: • Industrial and bio-technological process .
NaOH treatment • Increase the digestibility by alkali treatment soluabilize hemicellulose • Not changing cellulose content • Increase hemicellulose and cellulose digestion by making to swell • Without removing lignin break bond with cellulose and hemicellulose • 3-4 % only effective .
. • Liquid is washed and drained off until alkali is removed. • Organic matter digestibility increases 46-70%. to eliminate this Spraying of low concentration of alkali on the chopped straw.• Soaking straw in 10 times its weight of 1. • Leaching losses .20% .5% NaOH solution for about 24 hours.
Calcium hydroxide • • • • • Cheaper Safer Low solubility 4 kg / 100 kg Higher digestibility by long incubation .
Ammoniation • Ammonia act as similar to sodium hydroxide • Reaction require much longer time – 20 days – NAOH – 24 hours • Advantages – As NPN – No mineral residue in crops • Dis adv – Air tight – Reduced feed intake .
5-3.• • • • • • • Ammoniation Chaff the crop residues-2-3 cm length Dig a circular pit on an elevated place Add 35-40% water to moisten the crop residues Fill in to the pit and apply 2.help to evaporate excess quantity of ammonia .0% liquid ammonia Cover and seal the pit with plastic sheet Open the pit after 30-35 days by which time the feed is ready for livestock • Kept in the open for over night before feeding.
lignin-reduces digestibility of the polysaccharides • Wood rotting fungi.delignify the lignin • Eg • Ganoderma applanatum.BIOLOGICAL METHOD • Fungal treatment • Straw. • Coriolus versicolor• Preference lignin degrader not hemicellulose • Increases DM digestibility • Degrade 45 % lignin .
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