This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
MAGNETIC FIELD
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
P
Consider a charge q moving with a constant velocity v.
The location of the charge at any given instant is called
the source point.
The point P where the magnetic field due to the charge is
being evaluated is called the field point.

r
r is the displacement vector from
source point to field point.
 is the angle between r and v.
x
y
q
v
+
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
The direction of the magnetic field at point P is
perpendicular to both r and v and can be determined using
the right hand rule.
P

r
B
x
y
q
v
+
0 , // = F then B v If
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
q B ·
2
1
r
B ·
v B ·
 sin · B
0 , // = F then B v If
Experimental results about the magnitude of B.
The magnetic field B due to a moving charge q is
2
sin
4 r
v q
B
o

t
µ
=
where:
* 10 4
.
7
A
m T
o
÷
× = t µ
A
Tm o
7
10 1
4
÷
× =
t
µ
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
0 , // = F then B v If
*permeability of free space is the
measure of the amount of resistance
encountered when forming a
magnetic field in a vacuum.
The magnetic field B due to a moving charge q is
2
sin
4 r
v q
B
o

t
µ
=
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
2
ˆ
4 r
r v q
B
o
×
=
t
µ
where:
r
r
r =
ˆ
Vector Magnetic Field
0 , // = F then B v If
0 , // = F then B v If
28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge
NOTES:
• B = 0 at all points along
the line through the charge
parallel to the direction of
velocity. sin  = 0
• at any distance r from
the charge, B is maximum
at all points lying in the
plane perpendicular to the
direction of velocity.
sin  = 1
• if the charge is negative,
the direction of B is
opposite that for a positive
charge.
2
r
qq
k F
E
=
2
2 19
9
) 10 . 0 (
) 10 6 . 1 (
) 10 9 (
2
2
m
C
F
C
Nm
E
÷
×
× =
upward N FE , 10 30 . 2
26 ÷
× =
Example 1. Two protons move parallel to the xaxis in opposite
directions at the same speed of 1.00 x 10
5
m/s. At the instant
shown in the figure, where r = 10 cm, find the electric and
magnetic forces (magnitude and direction) on the upper proton.
2
sin
4 r
qv
B
o

t
µ
=
2
5 19
7
) 10 . 0 (
) / 10 1 )( 10 6 . 1 (
) 10 1 (
m
s m C
B
A
Tm
× ×
× =
÷
÷
T B
19
10 6 . 1
÷
× =
qvB F
M
=
) 10 6 . 1 )( / 10 1 )( 10 6 . 1 (
19 5 19
T s m C F
M
÷ ÷
× × × =
upward N FM , 10 56 . 2
33 ÷
× =
Example 1. Two protons move parallel to the xaxis in opposite
directions at the same speed of 1.00 x 10
5
m/s. At the instant
shown in the figure, where r = 10 cm, find the electric and
magnetic forces (magnitude and direction) on the upper proton.
Consider a segment dl of a current carrying conductor.
2
sin
4 r
v dQ
dB
o

t
µ
=
2
sin
4 r
dt
dl
dQ
dB
o

t
µ
=
2
sin
4 r
dl
dt
dQ
dB
o

t
µ
=
28.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element
28.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Element
The magnetic field due to a current element is
2
sin
4 r
dl I
dB
o

t
µ
=
2
4 r
r l d I
B d
o
.
×
=
t
µ
Law of BiotSavart
The magnetic field of a currentcarrying conductor is
}
=
2
sin
4 r
dl I
B
o

t
µ
}
.
×
=
2
4 r
r l d I
B
o
t
µ
Example 2. A copper wire carries a steady current of 125 A. Find
the magnetic field caused by a 1.00cm segment of this wire at a
point 1.2 m from it if the point is (a) point P
1
straight to the side of
the segment, and (b) point P
2
on a line at 30
o
to the segment
2
sin
4
) (
r
dl I
B a
o

t
µ
=
T B
8
10 7 . 8
÷
× =
2
7
) 2 . 1 (
90 sin ) 01 . 0 )( 125 (
) 10 1 (
m
m A
B
A
Tm
÷
× =
T B
8
10 3 . 4
÷
× =
2
7
) 2 . 1 (
30 sin ) 01 . 0 )( 125 (
) 10 1 ( ) (
m
m A
B b
A
Tm
÷
× =
Consider a conductor of length 2a carrying a current I.
Find the magnetic field B at point P at a distance x from the
conductor on its perpendicular bisector.
2 2
y x r + =
2 2
) sin(
y x
x
+
= ÷ t
dy dl Let =
}
= 
t
µ
sin
4
2
r
dl I
B
o
28.3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current
Carrying Conductor
}
= 
t
µ
sin
4
2
r
dl I
B
o
}
÷
+
+
=
a
a
o
y x
x
y x
dy I
B
2 2
2 2
4t
µ
( )
}
÷
+
=
a
a
o
y x
xdy I
B
2
3
2 2
4t
µ
28.3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current
Carrying Conductor
2 2
2
4
a x x
a I
B
o
+
=
t
µ
• If the length 2a>>x, the
conductor can be considered to
be infinitely long.
• If a>>x,
xa
a I
B
o
2
4t
µ
=
28.3 Magnetic Field of a Straight Current
Carrying Conductor
2 2
2
4
a x x
a I
B
o
+
=
t
µ
r
I
B
o
t
µ
2
=
x
I
B
o
t
µ
2
=
Example 3. The figure shows an endon view of two long
parallel straight wires perpendicular to the xyplane, each
carrying a current of 10 A but in opposite directions. Find
the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at points
P
1
, P
2
, and P
3
.
x
y
0
1
0
c
m
2
0
c
m

1
0
c
m

3
0
c
m
I
1
=
1
0
A
P
1
P
2
P
3
I
2
=
1
0
A
B
2
B
1
r
I
B
o
t
µ
2
=
For P
1
:
m
A
x B
A
Tm
20 . 0
10
) 10 2 (
7
1
÷
=
j T x B
ˆ
10 1
5
1
÷
÷ =
m
A
x B
A
Tm
40 . 0
10
) 10 2 (
7
2
÷
=
j T x B
ˆ
10 5
6
2
÷
=
j T x j T x Bnet
ˆ
10 5
ˆ
10 1
6 5 ÷ ÷
+ ÷ =
j T x B
net
ˆ
10 5
6 ÷
÷ =
Example 3. The figure shows an endon view of two long
parallel straight wires perpendicular to the xyplane, each
carrying a current of 10 A but in opposite directions. Find
the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at points
P
1
, P
2
, and P
3
.
r
I
B
o
t
µ
2
=
For P
2
:
m
A
x B
A
Tm
10 . 0
10
) 10 2 (
7
1
÷
=
j T x B
ˆ
10 2
5
1
÷
=
m
A
x B
A
Tm
10 . 0
10
) 10 2 (
7
2
÷
=
j T x B
ˆ
10 2
5
2
÷
=
j T x j T x Bnet
ˆ
10 2
ˆ
10 2
5 5 ÷ ÷
+ =
j T x B
net
ˆ
10 4
5 ÷
=
x
y
0
1
0
c
m
2
0
c
m

1
0
c
m

3
0
c
m
I
1
=
1
0
A
P
1
P
2
P
3
I
2
=
1
0
A
B
1
B
2
Example 3. The figure shows an endon view of two long
parallel straight wires perpendicular to the xyplane, each
carrying a current of 10 A but in opposite directions. Find
the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at points
P
1
, P
2
, and P
3
.
r
I
B
o
t
µ
2
=
For P
3
:
m
A
x B
A
Tm
30 . 0
10
) 10 2 (
7
1
÷
=
j T x B
ˆ
10 67 . 6
6
1
÷
=
m
A
x B
A
Tm
10 . 0
10
) 10 2 (
7
2
÷
=
j T x B
ˆ
10 2
5
2
÷
÷ =
j T x j T x Bnet
ˆ
10 2
ˆ
10 67 . 6
5 6 ÷ ÷
÷ =
j T x B
net
ˆ
10 33 . 1
5 ÷
÷ =
x
y
0
1
0
c
m
2
0
c
m

1
0
c
m

3
0
c
m
I
1
=
1
0
A
P
1
P
2
P
3
I
2
=
1
0
A
B
2
B
1
Consider two long and straight parallel currentcarrying
wires. Determine the magnitude and direction of the magnetic
force they exert on each other.
28.4 Magnetic Force Between Parallel Conductors
I
1
I
2
B
1
B
2
F
12
F
21
28.4 Magnetic Force Between Parallel Conductors
Force per unit length exerted
by wire 1 on wire 2 (F
12
)
r
1 2 12
LB I F =

.

\

=
r
I
L I F
o
t
µ
2
1
2 12

.

\

=
÷
r
I I
x
L
F
A
Tm 2 1
7
12
) 10 2 (
Force per unit length exerted
by wire 2 on wire 1 (F
21
)
2 1 21
LB I F =

.

\

=
r
I
L I F
o
t
µ
2
2
1 21

.

\

=
÷
r
I I
x
L
F
A
Tm 2 1
7
21
) 10 2 (
I
1
I
2
B
1
B
2
F
12
F
21
28.4 Magnetic Force Between Parallel Conductors
If the currents in the conductors are in opposite directions:
r
x
• Two parallel wires with currents in the same direction attract
each other.
• Two parallel wires with currents in opposite directions repel
each other.
Example 4. Find the magnitude and direction of the F
net
per unit
length on wire 3 due to wires 1 and 2.
x
y
8 cm
I
3
= 20 A
6 cm
I
2
= 5 A I
1
= 10 A
F
13
F
23
F
net
m
N
A
Tm
m
A A
L
F
4
7
13
10 4
10 . 0
) 20 )( 10 (
) 10 2 (
÷
÷
× =
× =
m
N
A
Tm
m
A A
L
F
4
7
23
10 33 . 3
06 . 0
) 20 )( 5 (
) 10 2 (
÷
÷
× =
× =
x
y
8 cm
I
3
= 20 A
6 cm
I
2
= 5 A I
1
= 10 A
F
13
F
23
F
net
m
N
m
N x
L
F
4
4
10 2 . 3
0 ) 8 . 0 )( 10 4 (
÷
÷
× ÷ =
+ × ÷ =
E
m
N
m
N
m
N
y
L
F
5
4 4
10 3 . 9
10 33 . 3 ) 6 . 0 )( 10 4 (
÷
÷ ÷
× =
× + × ÷ =
E
m
N
m
N
m
N net
L
F
4
2 5 2 4
10 33 . 3
) 10 3 . 9 ( ) 10 2 . 3 (
÷
÷ ÷
× =
× + × ÷ =
x above
o
÷ =
=
÷
2 . 16
00032 . 0
000093 . 0
tan
1
u
Example 4. Find the magnitude and direction of the F
net
per unit
length on wire 3 due to wires 1 and 2.
28.5 Magnetic Field of a Circular Current Loop
Consider a circular current loop of radius a. Use the Law
of Biot and Savart to find the magnetic field at point P on the
axis of the loop.
2
4 r
dl I
dB
o
t
µ
=
2 2
2 2
2
) ( 4
cos
4
a x
a
a x
dl I
r
dl I
dB
o
o
x
+
+
=
=
t
µ
u
t
µ
2 2
2 2
2
) ( 4
sin
4
a x
x
a x
dl I
r
dl I
dB
o
o
y
+
+
=
=
t
µ
u
t
µ
MAGNETIC FIELD OF A CIRCULAR CURRENT LOOP
0 =
y
B
}
+
=
a
o
x
dl
a x
Ia
B
t
t
µ
2
0
2 2
2
3
) ( 4
x
B B =
) 2 (
) ( 4
2
3
2 2
a
a x
Ia
B
o
x
t
t
µ
+
=
2
3
) ( 2
2 2
2
a x
INa
B
o
+
=
µ
Where N is the number of turns
MAGNETIC FIELD AT THE CENTER OF A CIRCULAR
CURRENT LOOP
2
3
) ( 2
2 2
2
a x
Ia
B
o
+
=
µ
If x = 0, or at the center of the loop
a
I
B
o
2
µ
=
Example 5.
(a)
Example 5.
(b)
MAGNETIC FIELD OF OTHER CONDUCTORS
2
sin
4 r
dl I
dB
o

t
µ
=
(a)
( )
2
7
) 05 . 0 (
90 sin ) 0011 . 0 )( 10 (
10 1
m
m A
x dB
A
Tm
÷
=
T x B d
7
10 40 . 4
÷
=
(b)
( )
2
7
) 149 . 0 (
7 . 19 sin ) 0011 . 0 )( 10 (
10 1
m
m A
x dB
A
Tm
÷
=
T x B d
8
10 67 . 1
÷
=
( ) ( ) m m m r 149 . 0 14 . 0 05 . 0
2 2
= + =
( )
o
7 . 19 tan
14
5
1
= =
÷

(c)
0 0 = =  because dB
For the 12A wire:
( )
( )
T x
m
m A
x B d
cm
cm
A
Tm
8
2
8
5 . 2
7
10 79 . 8
) 08 . 0 (
) 0015 . 0 )( 12 (
10 1
÷ ÷
= =
For the 24A wire:
( )
( )
T x
m
m A
x B d
cm
cm
A
Tm
7
2
8
5 . 2
7
10 76 . 1
) 08 . 0 (
) 0015 . 0 )( 24 (
10 1
÷ ÷
= =
x
T x B d
net
8
10 79 . 8
÷
=
x
east T x
m
A
x
r
I
B
A
Tm o
, 10 91 . 2
50 . 5
800
) 10 2 (
2
5 7 ÷ ÷
= = =
t
µ
I
1
=
2
5
A
B
1
B
2
(a)
40cm x
I
2
=
7
5
A
x
2 1
B B =
2
2
1
1
2 2 r
I
r
I
o o
t
µ
t
µ
=
x cm
A
x
A
÷
=
40
75 25
3
40
=
÷
x
x cm
cm x 10 =
B
net
= 0 at a point 10cm from I
1
and 30 cm from I
2
.
I
1
=
2
5
A
B
1
B
2
(b)
40cm
I
2
=
7
5
A
x
2 1
B B =
2
2
1
1
2 2 r
I
r
I
o o
t
µ
t
µ
=
x cm
A
x
A
+
=
40
75 25
3
40
=
+
x
x cm
cm x 20 =
B
net
= 0 at a point 20cm from I
1
and 60 cm from I
2
.
x
T x
m
A
x
r
I
B
A
Tm o
5 7
10 11 . 1
045 . 0
50 . 2
) 10 2 (
2
÷ ÷
= = =
t
µ
I

v
) 10 11 . 1 )( / 10 6 )( 10 6 . 1 (
5 4 19
T x s m x C x qvB F
÷ ÷
= =
N x F
19
10 07 . 1
÷
=
same direction as the current
2 1
B B =
2
2
1
1
2 2 r
I
r
I
o o
t
µ
t
µ
=
2
1
1
2
r
r
I
I =
(a)
A m
m
A
I 2 ) 50 . 0 (
5 . 1
6
2
= =
upward T x
m
A
x
r
I
B
A
Tm o
Q
6 7
1
1
1
10 4 . 2
5 . 0
6
) 10 2 (
2
÷ ÷
= = =
t
µ
(b)
downward T x
m
A
x
r
I
B
A
Tm o
Q
6 7
2
2
2
10 67 . 2
5 . 1
2
) 10 2 (
2
÷ ÷
= = =
t
µ
upward T x B
netQ
6
10 13 . 2
÷
=
(c)
( ) ( ) T x T x T x B
m
m
m
m
x
6
1
6 . 0
7
1
8 . 0
6
10 3 . 1 ) 10 5 ( ) 10 2 (
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ = E
B
2
B
1
T x
m
A
x B
A
Tm
S
6 7
1
10 2
6 . 0
6
) 10 2 (
÷ ÷
= = T x
m
A
x B
A
Tm
S
7 7
2
10 5
8 . 0
2
) 10 2 (
÷ ÷
= =
( ) ( ) T x T x T x B
m
m
m
m
y
6
1
8 . 0
7
1
6 . 0
6
10 6 . 1 ) 10 5 ( ) 10 2 (
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = ÷ ÷ = E
T x B B B
y x netS
6
2 2
10 06 . 2
÷
= E + E =
FBD:
x
mg
F
6
o
T
F
6
o
mg
T
I I
r
m x m r
3
10 36 . 8 ) 6 sin 04 . 0 ( 2
÷
= =
FBD:
x
mg
F
6
o
T
F
6
o
mg
T
I I
F T = 6 sin
mg T = 6 cos
( )
mg
Il
mg
IlB
mg
F
r
I o
t
µ
2
6 tan = = =
( )

.

\

=
l
m gr
I
o
t
µ
2
) 6 (tan
A I 2 . 23 =
Due to segment a:
a
I
B
o
a
4
µ
=
Due to segment b:
b
I
B
o
b
4
µ
=
x
b
I
a
I
B
o o
net
4 4
µ µ
÷ =

.

\

÷ =
b a
I
B
o
net
1 1
4
µ
Due to vertical segment:
0 0 sin
4
2
1
= =
}
r
dl I
B
o
t
µ
Due to horizontal segment:
0 180 sin
4
2
2
= =
}
r
dl I
B
o
t
µ
R
I
B
o
8
3
µ
= Due to quartercircle:
R
I
B
o
net
8
µ
=
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.