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Mental Health and Disorders

Chapter Seven

© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


You can handle depression the same way you handle a tiger… if depression is creeping up and must be faced, learn something about the nature of the beast. You may escape without a mauling.
R. W. Shepherd

© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


The American College Health Association Survey 2010 Statistics • 45% of college students say they are depressed • 10% clam they experience suicidal thoughts • 44% report binge drinking • 19% felt things were helpless at some point • 23% felt overwhelmed by all they had to do • 21% felt lonely • 23% felt very sad • 13% felt so depressed it was difficult to function • 17% felt overwhelming anxiety • 17% felt overwhelming anger © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 .

MENTAL HEALTH •Mind. All rights reserved. 4 . and culture •Mental health The successful performance of mental functions resulting in productive activity The influence of the mind on the way the body functions •Psychosomatic © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. body.

good or bad.Mental Health • Basic mental health definitions and theories • Motivation task • The state of being energized to perform a • A stable set of beliefs about one’s qualities and attributes • Self concept • Self esteem • How one feels. All rights reserved. 5 . about one’s qualities and attributes © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Mental Health Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 6 . All rights reserved.

7 . ideal self.Self-Esteem is a combination of selfimage. and Pygmalion-self Self Image: what we perceive ourselves to be Ideal-self: how we want to be Pygmalion-self: our perception of what we believe other people think of us. I am not what I think I am I am not what you think I am I am what I think you think I am © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

.” • When do you find yourself talking to yourself? © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education.Self Talk • The encouragement or criticism you give yourself • The Law of Positive Self-Talk states: “You can change who you are by changing what you say when you talk to your mind. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. .Ways to Improve Self Esteem • • • • • • • • • • Good Friends Focus on the positive aspects about yourself Supportive self-talk Work toward accomplishments rather than perfection Mistakes are learning opportunities Try new activities Set goals Exercise regularly Volunteer Accept that which you cannot change. © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. . All rights reserved.

love. All rights reserved. guilt. anger.Mental Health • Characteristics of mental health • • • • • • such as fear. jealousy. 11 . or anxiety They have lasting and satisfying relationships They are comfortable with others They can laugh at themselves with others They have respect for themselves and others They can accept life’s disappointments They can meet life’s demands and handle problems They can make their own decisions They shape their environment and adjust to it when necessary • They feel good about themselves • They do not become overwhelmed by emotions • • © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health • Dr. Hofstra Univ. 12 . NY • Published study in Aug 2010 • 3256 students studied over 10 years • Showed average college student levels of depression and anxiety remained constant • Showed moderate to severe depression in college students increased from 34% in 1998 to 41% in 2009. All rights reserved. • Most had pre-existing issues © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. John Guthman.

All rights reserved. .Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health Study found that average student had milder symptoms of depression and anxiety Those student with more severe forms of depression were: • Socially isolated • Under stress • On Medication Identity Disorientation: • Familiar people are no longer present to reinforce identity created by student • Loss of sense of self • Loss of confidence • Increase in alcohol/drug use or abuse © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

All rights reserved.Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health • Drug abuse health • A quick fix and counterproductive • Very common problem related to mental • Violence • • Serious mental health issue • Largely preventable • Violence is related to large social problems Eating disorders • A response to unmet needs • Related to self-esteem or self-image • Socially related: “perfect body” © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 14 .

All rights reserved.Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health • Eating disorders • Anorexia nervosa: self-starvation • Fear of being fat • Restricting eating so body weight falls below 15% of a healthy weight • Distorted body image. a perception of obesity • In women: absence of three consecutive menstrual cycles © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 15 .

All rights reserved. fasting. 16 . or excessive exercise to prevent weight gains • Binge eating disorder • Characterized by excessive overeating © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education.Personal and Social Problems Related to Mental Health • Eating disorders • Bulimia nervosa • • • • Episodes of binge eating Loss of control when eating Overly concerned with body shape and size Self-induced vomiting or use of laxatives or diuretics for weight loss and control • Dieting.

All rights reserved.Mental and Personality Disorders • Anxiety disorders • Anxiety: excessive worry and concern • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): constant and uncontrollable worry or concern about everything • Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): anxiety disorder occurring after experiencing a frightening event • Panic disorders: sudden. overwhelming attacks of fear • Phobias: fears of specific objects or events • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): repetition of an act over and over © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 17 .

and apprehension • Mania: characterized by extremely elevated mood and hyperactive behaviors • Dysthymia: depression that has long-term but lesser effects than major depression • Bipolar disorder: mood swings between mania and depression • Seasonal affective disorder: depression experienced during a specific season of the year (usually winter) © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. sadness.Mental and Personality Disorders • Mood disorders: depression and mania • Depression: feelings of worthlessness. 18 . All rights reserved.

19 . All rights reserved.Mental and Personality Disorders • Paranoid Personality Disorder • Excessive distrust and suspicion of others • Schizophrenia • Mental disorder • Distorted thoughts • Atypical communication • Inappropriate emotion • Abnormal motor behavior © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Campus Calm gives high school and college students the tools to combat stress. ULifeline offers a screening tool. and contact information for university counseling centers. •Students also might not seek help because of concerns over confidentiality and finances and the fear that accepting they’re struggling will mean they can’t lead a productive life. Only 23 percent would be comfortable with a friend knowing they were getting help for emotional issues. The JED Foundation provides resources and research on mental health and suicide prevention for parents. Half of Us features inspirational interviews with artists and athletes along with information on mental health. 20 . students cited embarrassment as the number one reason someone wouldn’t seek help. stigma remains the most significant barrier to seeking treatment. You can also access the screening tool here. students and colleges. has information on mental health. symptoms and treatment and tips for students and parents. reputable Web sites can serve as good sources of information. developed by the Duke University Medical Center. All rights reserved. Such concerns cause students to keep their emotional troubles to themselves. including prevention. Specifically. provided by the American Psychiatric Association. •Although the Internet shouldn’t replace an evaluation with a therapist or treatment. according to a 2006 study.Treatment Options? Why Students Don’t Seek Services •For students. In addition to Psych Central. © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. reinforcing the stigma and making life far more difficult than it need be. consult these sites: – – – – – Healthy Minds.

All rights reserved. 21 .Treatment Options? © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Treatment Options? Outreach Workshops found on http://www.gatech. All rights reserved. .edu Stamps Health Service Counseling Website Overcoming the Stressors of Perfectionism & Procrastination Don't Believe Everything You Think: Using Logic to Overcome Stress Managing Stress for Ethnic Minorities Mind Matters: Using Psychology to Enhance Your Academic and Test Performance Be at the Top of Your Game: Principles of Relaxation and Stress Management from Sports Psychology A Mind-Body Approach to Stress Reduction © 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education.counseling.

© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. .