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HARNESSING THE POWER OF THE MOON

How do we go from…

to…

Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.energy.washington.edu

Tides rise and fall with great predictability each day. How can we use this resource?
Option 1: Tidal Barrage Option 2: In-Stream Tidal

• Build a dam across the mouth of an estuary (like a hydro-electric dam) • Harness potential energy of tides

• Underwater “wind turbine” • Harness kinetic energy of the tides

All pictures of in-stream turbines all available from the publicly accessible Electric Power Research Institute website (www.epri.com/oceanergy)

Let’s take a closer look at each option
Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.energy.washington.edu

Tidal barrage systems work like hydro-electric dams
Low Tide Barrage Dam

Ocean

Estuary

Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.energy.washington.edu

washington.On the incoming tide (flood tide).energy. water flows into the estuary Low Tide High Tide Barrage Dam Ocean Estuary Then the dam shuts Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.edu .

energy.washington.Once the tide goes out.edu . there is a height (potential energy) difference between ocean and estuary Low Tide High Tide Low Tide Barrage Dam Ocean Estuary Then the dam opens Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.

As water flows through the dam.energy. a turbine extracts energy from the flow Low Tide High Tide Low Tide Barrage Dam Since the ocean is much more massive than the estuary.washington. its height does not change Ocean Estuary Turbine Then the entire process repeats on the next tide… Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.edu .

Tidal barrages have issues… Cost ($$$) • The infrastructure required is enormous and so the cost of construction is very high • A project in the Severn Estuary (UK) was projected to cost $8 billion and take 10 years to build! • Who can afford something like that? Variable Power Production • Huge amount of power twice each day when dam in operation.energy.washington.edu . but no power in between (most of the day) • How can utilities integrate that with the grid? Environmental Impact • Operation of dam completely alters circulation in estuary • Dam turbines kill fish and can’t accommodate marine mammals It is unlikely that a tidal barrage would ever be constructed again Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.

Harnesses tidal currents rather than wind Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.energy.washington.edu .So how about in-stream tidal energy? It’s like a wind turbine… …but underwater.

edu .washington.energy.Tidal currents are generated by rise and fall of the tides (water flows downhill) Estuary Inlet Estuary Flood Inlet tide Ebb Tide Estuary Inlet Seabed • Slack water ― Constant water height ― No velocity Estuary Basin • Flood Tide ― Water level higher outside estuary than in main basin ― Water flows into estuary • Ebb Tide ― Water level higher in main basin than outside estuary ― Water flows out of estuary Tidal turbines harness both ebb and flood tides Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.

edu . causing water to rise and fall • Strongest tides when sun and moon pull in same direction (spring tide) • Weakest tides when sun and moon in opposition (neap tide) Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.energy.Tides are caused by the pull of the moon and sun on the earth’s oceans • Gravitational mass of sun and moon pulls on ocean.washington.

edu . currents are fastest Spring Tides (strongest) 3 2 Current Velocity (m/s) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 1-Feb 6-Feb 11-Feb 16-Feb 21-Feb 26-Feb Tidal currents vary with the lunar cycle (14 days) Date Neap Tides (weakest) Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.washington.energy. when the range is greatest.Since currents are driven by tidal range.

Tidal in-stream energy is in the early stages.energy.washington. Let’s take a closer look at them… Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.edu . Lots of ideas.

washington.All in-stream turbines have the same basic components Component I II III Rotor Function Options Extracts power from flow Steps up rotational speed from rotor Converts rotational power to electricity • Horizontal axis • Vertical axis • Planetary Gears • Hydraulics • Induction • Permanent Magnet Gearbox Generator IV Foundation Secures turbine to seabed • Monopile • Gravity • Chain Anchors Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.energy.edu .

energy.washington.5 MW Monopile drilled or driven into seabed Lifting mechanism pulls turbine out of water 3 years of testing prototype in UK (300 kW) Foundation Maintenance Development Large Scale (18 m diameter) Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.edu .Marine Current Turbines Power train Horizontal axis (2 bladed) Planetary gearbox Induction generator Rated from 1.2 – 2.

edu .Lunar Energy Power train Horizontal axis (ducted) Hydraulic gearbox Induction generator Rated at 2 MW Gravity foundation using concrete and aggregate Barge recovers “cassette” with all moving parts Tank testing Nearing end of design for first large scale unit Foundation Maintenance Development Large Scale (21 m diameter inlet) Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.energy.washington.

barge recovery? Small scale demonstration unit off barge Foundation Maintenance Large Scale (15 m diameter) Development Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.edu .washington.Open Hydro Power train Horizontal axis No gearbox Rim-mount permanent magnet generator Rated at 1500 kW Monopile drilled or driven into seabed Divers.energy.

washington.Verdant Power train Horizontal axis (3 blades) Planetary gearbox Induction generator Rated at 34 kW Monopile drilled or driven into seabed Boat recovers entire power train (pops off) Installing 6 turbines off Roosevelt Island.edu .energy. NY City Foundation Maintenance Small Scale (5 m diameter) Development Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.

GCK (Gorlov Helical Turbine) Power train Vertical axis (3 blades) Power train in development Rated at 7 kW Foundation in development Divers.edu .washington.energy. boat recovery? Foundation Maintenance Small Scale (1 m diameter) Development Testing off barges and in rivers Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.

So where should turbines be sited? Criteria Reason Logical Sites Strong currents Power flux goes with the cube of velocity Channel power product of power flux and area Need to put the power to use Constrictions in estuaries with good tidal range Large-scale constrictions Close proximity to existing electrical infrastructure Large crosssectional area Electrical Infrastructure Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.washington.energy.edu .

energy.washington.(more siting issues) Criteria Reason Logical Sites Solid seabed Needs to support or hold turbine foundation Maintenance and installation costs lower if site near port Estuaries used for shipping and recreation http://www. fully submerged turbines) Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory .edu Scoured gravel or rock seabed Close proximity to major port Port Facilities Multiple Use Minimize conflicts in design stage (e.g.

washington.There are environmental concerns associated with in-stream tidal energy Criticism Response Turbines make sushi out of fish and marine mammals Turbines operate very slowly (1012 RPM) Unlikely to injure fish or marine mammals Manufacturers using glass-based non-toxic alternatives Anti-fouling paints used on turbines leach toxins into estuary Operation changes estuary circulation Limits set on kinetic energy extraction so the impact will be insignificant In-stream turbines much more benign than barrages! Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.energy.edu .

washington.edu .energy.So let’s look at a case study close to home – Tacoma Narrows Point Evans Possible Turbine Site Port of Tacoma (base for installation and maintenance) Tacoma Narrows Bridge Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.

Single Day 1400 1200 1400 Channel Power .edu .Monthly Average - Annual Average= 106 MW Average Channel Power (MW) Channel Power (MW) Channel Power (MW) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0:00 High hourly variability (two ebb and flood tides per day) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 High daily variability (14 day lunar cycle) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Low monthly variability – stable long-term resource 12:00 0:00 1-Feb 6-Feb 11-Feb Jan Mar May Jul Sep Nov Hour Date Month Extraction Limit (15% Annual Average) = 16 MW Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.Tidal Cycle 140 Channel Power .washington.High velocity currents in a relatively wide channel results in a strong resource Channel Power .energy.

The seabed is relatively deep at Point Evans .edu .energy.plenty of space to install large diameter turbines MLLW Depth (m) <0 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 50-55 55-60 60-65 65+ Tacoma Narrows Point Evans Array Location Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.washington.

energy.washington.The seabed is composed of dense sand and clay and should support either pile or gravity foundations Seabed Surface Seabed Geology • Predominantly clay and sand • Soil layers have been glacially consolidated and are very dense Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.edu .

Turbine power cable would come ashore there.energy.High voltage interconnection is possible on the west side of Tacoma Narrows • Tacoma Power has a right of way (ROW) 115kV transmission line (Tacoma Power) running south along the bluffs from the channel Pt. Evans channel marker marker.edu .washington. • Turbine array power would connect with 115kV cable crossing towers Tacoma Power ROW existing 115kV line near cable crossing towers Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.

edu .Marine Current Turbines is the best fit for megawattscale generation in Tacoma Narrows GCK (Gorlov) Lunar Energy Marine Current Turbines Open Hydro SeaPower SMD Hydrovision UEK Verdant Design Device • A number of devices are unsuitable (in the near term) due to immature: ―Maintenance ―Foundation ―Power train • Of the remaining devices.energy.washington. Marine Current Turbines fit the site best Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.

A surface piercing pilot plant could be tested. followed by installation of a larger array of submerged turbines Pilot Plant Commercial Plant • Next-generation design • Fully submerged ―Compatible with shipping traffic ―Requires new support structure and lifting mechanism ―Same power train and foundation as SeaGen • SeaGen ―Dual-rotor ―Surface piercing • Requires further development prior to deployment • Ready for deployment in short-term Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.washington.energy.edu .

Enforceable? • Sport fishing lines unlikely to effect rotors Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.energy. fishing all take place in Tacoma Narrows • Far enough north of bridge to avoid caisson wake • Far enough offshore to be out of Point Evans eddy • Far enough south for Point Defiance turbulence to dissipate • May require exclusion zone around turbine array (< 10% total surface area).edu Biological Activity .washington.Device selection is driven by a need to minimize impact on Tacoma Narrows Category Issue • Kelp wrapped around rotors • Bio-accumulation on rotor and support structure • Marine mammals and fish • Array footprint overlaps with conventional shipping lane Design Approach • Rope cutters at base of hub • Use of glass-based anti-fouling paints to prevent bio-accumulation without introducing toxins to ecosystem • Low rotational speed (~12 RPM) Shipping Traffic • 15m LAT (lowest astronomical tide) overhead clearance for fully submerged turbines • Pilot at edge of shipping lane Eddies and Turbulence • Eddies and large-scale turbulence degrade turbine operation and shorten life • Eddies from bridge and points Recreational Use • Swimming. diving.

Turbines need to be separated to prevent the wake from one from degrading the operation of another Surface 15 m (minimum) 9m 10 m Lateral Spacing and Clearance 17 m Seabed 18 m 8m 46 m 46 m Channel Edge Downstream Spacing Channel Edge 180 m 180 m Dual rotor turbine (46m tip-to-tip) Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.washington.edu .energy.

washington.energy... Turbine Electrical Cabling Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.A commercial scale array at Point Evans might look like this.edu .

…perform like this… 30 Equipment Installed • 64 fully submerged nextgeneration MCT arranged in 5 rows .000 homes Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.18.7 MW Daily Average 15 Power (MW) 10 5 0 1-Jan 20-Feb 11-Apr 31-May 20-Jul 8-Sep 28-Oct 17-Dec Date • Average installation depth of 56 m Enough renewable energy to power more than 10.washington.4 km of subsea cable rated to 33 kV • 1700 m of trenching and 400 m of directional drilling 25 20 Average Array Output = 13.600 tons of equipment • 7.energy.edu .

5 Locally available renewable energy: • Low speed wind .…and produce dependable electricity at a costcompetitive rate! Utility Generator Municipal Generator cents/kWh (Real – Nominal) 7.energy.6 – 8. tidal energy is predictable centuries in advance! Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www.7 – 6.edu .washington.~50 cents/kWh And unlike solar and wind.8 5.~10 cents/kWh • Solar PV .

edu .washington. sustainable. predictable source of energy in our own backyard Thank you Energy and Environmental Combustion Laboratory http://www. lowcost.In-stream tidal energy represents an environmentally benign.energy.