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Scientific Management Theory

Principles of Scientific Management
 The development of true science of work  The scientific selection & progressive development of workmen  The bringing together of science of work & scientifically selected and trained workmen  The division of work and responsibility between management and workers.

The Philosophy of Scientific Management isScience not rule of Thumb Harmony not discord Cooperation no Individualism Maximum Output in place of restricted output  Development in each greatest efficiency & prosperity    

 Scientific Management focused on the lowest level (shop floor) of the organization. It aimed at studying the relationship between physical nature of work and physiological nature of workmen. It stressed upon specialization, technical competence, rationality for improving organizational efficiency & economy.

Soldering Phenomenon
Tendency on part of workers to restrict output Taylor classified this into two Natural Soldering  Systematic Soldering

Mental Revolution
 Scientific Management involves a complete mental revolution on part of workers towards their duties, their work, their fellowmen & their employers & on part of managers towards their employees & their problems. Thus Mental Revolution required the realisation on part of both parties that their mutual interest is not contradictory & both can prosper through cooperation and not conflict. This is the essence of Scientific Management.

Techniques
Functional Foremanship 4 are responsible for planning Order of work & Route Clerk  Instruction Card Clerk  Time & Cost Clerk  Shop Disciplinarian

4 are responsible for execution Gang Boss  Repair Boss  Speed Boss  Inspector

Motion Study
It is a technique of standardization of work methods. Involves observation of all motions comprised in a particular job and then determination of the best set of motions. It is one best way of doing job.

Time Study
 Used to determine standard Time for completion of work. It facilitates the planning of large daily task.

Differential Piece Rate Plan
 Taylor suggested pay by piece rates on basis of standards set by motion and time studies. Under this plan workers are paid a low piece rate upto standard, a large bonus at standard and a higher piece rate above the standard.

Exception Principle
 It involves setting up a large daily task by the management with rewards for achieving targets and penalty for not meeting the targets. Taylor suggested that manager should be interested in exceptional items that vary from standard performance.

Taylor also developed The standardization of all tools and implements used in the trade.  The Mnemonic system for classifying manufactured products as well as implements used in manufacturing.  The setting up of separate planning cell or department.

 The use of time saving implements like slide rules  Modern cost system  Routing system  Instruction Card