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Any ratio of the form m:n can be put in the form 1 : k by dividing through by m. For example, 3 : 15 on division by 3 equals 1 : 5, 2 : 7 on division by 2 equals 1 : 3.5 Ratios in the form 1 : k are called unitary. A ratio in which one of the terms is equal to 1 is called a unitary ratio.

WHAT IS RATIO?

A ratio is a comparison of two numbers. We generally separate the two numbers in the ratio with a colon (:). Suppose we want to write the ratio of 8 and 12. We can write this as 8:12 or as a fraction 8/12, and we say the ratio is eight to twelve.

EXAMPLES:

Jeannine has a bag with 3 videocassettes, 4 marbles, 7 books, and 1 orange. 1) What is the ratio of books to marbles? Expressed as a fraction, with the numerator equal to the first quantity and the denominator equal to the second, the answer would be 7/4. Two other ways of writing the ratio are 7 to 4, and 7:4. 2) What is the ratio of videocassettes to the total number of items in the bag? There are 3 videocassettes, and 3 + 4 + 7 + 1 = 15 items total. The answer can be expressed as 3/15, 3 to 15, or 3:15.

COMPUTING RATIOS

The ratio of a to b is a/b or a :b. Because a ratio is a quotient (or fraction), its denominator CANNOT BE ZERO. Ratios are usually expressed in simplified form. For instance, the ratio of 6 : 8 is usually simplified as 3 : 4.

SIMPLIFYING RATIOS

We can often make the numbers in ratios smaller so that they are easier to compare. You do this by dividing each side of the ratio by the same number, the highest common factor. This is called simplifying. Example: In a club the ratio of female to male members is 12:18 Both 12 and 18 can be divided by 2. 12 2 = 6 18 2 = 9 So a simpler way of saying 12:18 is 6:9. To make the ratio simpler again, we can divide both 6 and 9 by 3 63=2 93=3 So a simplest way of saying 12:18 is 2:3.

EQUIVALENT RATIOS

These are all equivalent ratios, they are in the same proportion. All these ratios mean that for every 2 female members in the club there are 3 males: 12:18 6:9 2:3 2:3 is easier to understand than 12:18!

COMPARING RATIOS

To compare ratios, write them as fractions. The ratios are equal if they are equal when written as fractions. Example: Are the ratios 3 to 4 and 6:8 equal? The ratios are equal if 3/4 = 6/8. These are equal if their cross products are equal; that is, if 3 8 = 4 6. Since both of these products equal 24, the answer is yes, the ratios are equal. Remember to be careful! Order matters! A ratio of 1:7 is not the same as a ratio of 7:1.

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