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DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN (AED)

CENTRE FOR FOUNDATION STUDIES (CFS), INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA.

Introduction to Statistics for Built Environment


Course Code: AED 1222

Prepared by: Br. Mootaz Munjid Mustafa


Updated by: LAr. Samsul Rohaizad 02/11/2011 AED, CFS, IIUM, PJ.

Lecture 1
Basic concepts

Todays Lecture:
Definition of statistics. Important terms used in the study of statistics. Why learn statistics? Statistical problem solving The two essential parts of the study of statistics.

What is/are statistics?


The term statistics is commonly used in two ways:

1. Used as a plural term that refers to numerical facts or data.

For example

Statistics: as a set of numerical facts or data about the


usage of a particular website

Statistics: as a set of numerical facts or data about the


availability of lands, and the ownership of minerals in the state of Alberta (USA).

2. Used as a singular (more broad) term that refers to the science of designing studies, gathering data, and then classifying, summarizing, interpreting, and presenting these data to explain and support the decisions that are reached.

In other words, the term statistics used as a singular term refers to a science or a field of study that covers the following activities:
Designing studies Gathering data Analyzing the data Presenting the data

Reaching a decision

Statistical Problem-solving
Managers, decision makers and researchers use statistical problem solving procedures to help them make wise and effective decisions. The basic steps in statistical problem-solving are as follows:

Statistical Problem-solving cont.

Step one: Identifying the problem Step two: Gathering available facts
Step three: Gathering new data Step four: Classifying and organizing the data Step five: Presenting and analyzing data Step six: Making a decision

Important terms used in the study of statistics

A population

Is the complete collection of objects or individuals under study

A sample

Is a portion or subset taken from a population Is a number that describes a population characteristic (such as weight or height) Is a number that describes a sample characteristic Is a characteristic that can be expressed by a number. The value of this characteristic is likely to vary (change) from one item in the data set to the next, for example: age, gender, weight, height

A parameter

A statistic

A variable

Population vs. Sample


Population
a b cd

Sample
b g o r y c i u n

e f gh i j kl m n o pq r s t uv w x y z

Parameter
Business Statistics: A DecisionMaking Approach, 7e 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Statistic

Why learn statistics?


A knowledge in statistics helps us:
Describe and understand relationships between variables.
For example: Level of education & drug abuse. Level of fitness & hours of training.

Make better decisions.


For example: To accept or to reject a shipment of materials To judge the performance of staff/workers and act accordingly.

Examples from the Built Environment?

Examples from the built environment


Describing and understanding the relationship between variables: 1. Classroom design/layout & student performance. 2. Building materials used & energy savings. 3. Construction technique used & cost reduction. Making better decisions: 1. Choosing a certain building material, lighting fixture etc 2. Allocating land for the different land uses (housing, commercial, industrial etc)

Why study this course?


To develop your skills of describing and presenting data. To help you understand the basics of data analysis. To apply these skills, and understanding in research related to the built environment.

The two essential parts of the subject of statistics


The subject of statistics can be viewed as a process that is broken down into two parts:
1. Descriptive statistics: covers the process of collecting, classifying, summarizing and presenting data. 2. Inferential statistics: refers to the process of arriving at a conclusion about a population based on information obtained from a sample.

1. Descriptive Statistics
The process of collecting, classifying, summarizing and presenting data.

Collect data e.g., Survey, Observation, Experiments Present data e.g., Charts and graphs
Characterize data e.g., Sample mean =
Business Statistics: A Decision-Making Approach, 7e 2008 PrenticeHall, Inc.

x
n

2. Inferential Statistics
Drawing conclusions and/or making decisions concerning a population based on sample results.

Estimation
e.g., Estimate the population mean weight using the sample mean weight

Hypothesis Testing
e.g., Use sample evidence to test the claim that the population mean weight is 120 kg.
Business Statistics: A DecisionMaking Approach, 7e 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

2. Inferential Statistics
Making statements about a population by examining sample results
Sample statistics
(known)

Population parameters

Inference

(unknown, but can be estimated from sample evidence)

Sample
Business Statistics: A DecisionMaking Approach, 7e 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Population

Start of the Study

Classification, summarization and processing of data Descriptive Statistics

An overview of descriptive statistics and statistical inference (Inferential Statistics)

Presentation and communication of summarized information Inferential statistics

Use census data to analyze the population

Or

Use sample information to make inferences and draw conclusions about the population

End of the Study

Next week
The following topics will be discussed:
1. Data types and variables. 2. Scales/levels of measurement of data.