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Experiment 5: Acid- Base Chemistry

Prepared by: Group 5 (BSPT-2A)

A little bit of history!


It was not until a few centuries ago that scientist discover that things taste sour - because they are acidic in nature.

The term acid came from the Latin word acere, meaning sour
In 17th Century, Robert Boyle labeled this substance as either acid or base. (Acid- litmus to red ; Baselitmus blue) 1884, Svante August Arrhenius proposed that salts, strong acids, and strong bases completely ionized in dilute water solutions.

A little re-cap of whats the topic all about. :)


Theory
Arrhenius

Acid
When reacted with water, produces H3O or H+ Bronsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor; has conjugate base

Base
When reacted with water, produces OHBronsted-Lowry base is a proton acceptor; has conjugate acid

Bronsted- Lowry

Lewis

Electron pair acceptor; Electrophile

Electron pair donor; Nucleophile

Materials!
Benzoic Acid

Materials!
Distilled Water Red and Blue litmus paper

Materials!
3M NaOH

3M HCL

Materials!
Test tubes

Droppers

Lets experiment!
1. Place a small scoop of benzoic acid (about 1 gram) into a test tube and note its physical properties. 2. Dissolve the benzoic acid (in step 1) slowly in a beaker with 100ml distilled water, note its solubility..

3. Using a dropper, obtain a sample of the prepared benzoic acid solution and place it on a red and blue litmus paper.

4. Add 3M NaOH dropwise to the solution until it becomes clear.

5. Add the same amount of 3M HCl and note the separation of benzoic acid from the solution.

6. Repeat the procedure from the beginning using tributylamine.

experimental Result:
Benzoic Acid with Distilled Water
Color:

NaOH &HCl
Color: - Pink spots appeared but when mixed thoroughly it became clear; colorless Appearance: - Clear, colorless Solubility test: - Soluble Rxn with Red litmus paper - No reaction happened. Rxn with Blue litmus paper. - It became color red.

- White
Appearance: - Solid, white, powdered. Solubility test: - Insoluble Rxn with Red litmus paper

- No reaction happened.
Rxn with Blue litmus paper - It became color red.

expected result
Benzoic Acid it is an Acid. Color: White or Colorless. Appearance: Looks like very clear white powder and crystalline flakes. Solubility Test: Benzoic acid is insoluble in cold water but soluble in hot water and soluble in 2.0 M NaOH. It is insoluble in 2.0 M HCl. Benzoic Acid is insoluble with HCl and soluble in NaOH. Reaction to Blue litmus paper: Turns the blue litmus paper to red color. Reaction to Red litmus paper: The color didnt change.

expected result
NaOH It is a strong Base but in our experiment. It is mixed with Benzoic Acid, thats the result of the mixture became acidic. Color: Colorless. Appearance: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is found as solid white granules, chips, or pellets. Solid forms rapidly absorb water vapor from the air. This process generates heat and results in the formation of concentrated solutions of NaOH. Concentrated solutions of NaOH in water are clear in color. Solubility Test: Soluble.

Reaction to Blue litmus paper: Turns the blue litmus paper to red color.
Reaction to Red litmus paper: The color didnt change.

expected result
HCl It is an Acid. Color: Clear, colorless to light-yellow liquid. Appearance: Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water. It is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. Hydrochloric acid is found naturally in gastric acid. Solubility Test: Soluble. Reaction to Blue litmus paper: Turns the blue litmus paper to red color. Reaction to Red litmus paper: The color didnt change.

therefore we conclude..
We therefore conclude that we were able to know the acid-base behavior of carboxylic acids in terms of the changes in the physical properties and ionization behavior in acid-base reactions.

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