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Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

Chapter 1, Introduction

History
during the early period of manufacturing there were seldom any drawings one-off manufacturing ~1798 concept of interchange parts
Eli Whitney won a contract to supply muskets to the United States government. The firearms manufacture were based on the concept of interchangeable parts. He made a presentation to congress by building 10 guns and assembling and disassembling them claiming the same exact parts and mechanisms.

specifying tolerances became very important

Eli Whitney 1765 - 1825


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EML 2023 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Tolerances
All dimensions require a tolerance. A tolerance should be as large as possible without interfering with the function of the part to minimize production costs. Consider how your part will be checked to see if it meets the tolerances.

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Tolerance Notes

EML 2023 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Plus/Minus (Limit) Tolerancing


Plus/minus tolerancing seemed to work well for many applications.

EML 2023 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Plus/Minus (Limit) Tolerancing

EML 2023 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Plus/Minus (Limit) Tolerancing

EML 2023 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Limit Tolerancing
Is the .620-.630 hole horizontal position measured from a true vertical plane or from the as built face? A .005 tolerance on the horizontal and vertical position of the hole means that the position could be off by as much as .007.

max allowed error for hole center

.007
perfect location for hole center

+.005

+.005

EML 2023 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Limit Tolerancing
Limit tolerances dont have an origin or any orientation or location relative to datums. The datums are usually implied. The drawings are subject to different interpretations. Plus/minus tolerancing works well for individual features of size (ex. diameter of a shaft), but does not control the relationship between individual features very well.

EML 2023 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Limit Tolerancing

EML 2023 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

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Limit Tolerancing

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Limit Tolerancing

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GDT
Limit tolerancing can give the size of individual features. GDT can provide:
relationships between features circular tolerance zone for hole placement

GDT removes any ambiguity from the drawing specification

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History of Dimensioning and Tolerancing Standards in the USA


Mil Std 8 1950s Mil Std 8A Mil Std 8B Mil Std 8C-1963 ASA-Y14.5-1957 USASI Y14.5-1966 ANSI Y14.5-1973 ANSI Y14.5M-1982 ASME Y14.5M-1994 ASME Y14.5-2009
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Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GDT)


1. establish a reference coordinate system by defining datums 2. provide basic dimensions (perfect dimensions) relative to the datums 3. specify allowable tolerances

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communication symbols ASME clarity replace total form size & location function & relationship tolerance tolerances & interchageability size plus/minus

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