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MINING SECTOR IN INDIA

By:- RITESH KUMAR

Mining Industries in India


The Mining industry in India is a major economic activity which contributes significantly to the economy of India. The GDP contribution of the mining industry varies from 2.2% to 2.5% only but going by the GDP of the total industrial sector it contributes around 10% to 11%
Year 1st Quarter 2nd Quarter 3rd Quarter 4th Quarter statistics in INR statistics in INR statistics in INR statistics in INR crores crores crores crores 20275 21110 22187 22391 22903 24616 26304 26251 20067 19649 20901 21837 22125 23676 25398 24016 21744 21745 23608 24620 25226 26582 28200 27403 22943 23636 25882 27149 26989 29351 29520 30798

2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

Some facts about Indian Mining Industries: India produces 89 minerals out of which 4 are fuel minerals, 11 metallic, 52 non-metallic and 22 minor minerals. India is the worlds largest producer of mica blocks and mica splittings. With the recent spurt in world demand for chromite. India has stepped up its production to reach the second rank among the chromite producers of the world. India ranks, 3rd in production of coal & lignite, 2nd in barites, 4th in iron ore, 5th in bauxite and crude steel, 7th in manganese ore and 8th in aluminium. The public sector contributes over 85 percent of the total value of mineral production. Public sector enterprises like the National Mineral Development Corporation, Kudremukh Iron Ore company, Steel Authority of India Limited and Orissa Mining Corporation dominate the iron ore sector. National Aluminium Company contributes about 35% bauxite mining and aluminium production. Hindustan Copper Limited predominates the copper ore mining sector. After cessation of economic operations in Bharat Gold Mines Limited since 2000, Hutti Gold Mines Limited (a Government of Karnataka undertaking), is the only undertaking engaged in the mining of gold. Indian mining industry provides job opportunities to around 700,000 individuals.

Geographical Distribution
Mineral Belt Location Minerals found Coal, iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, copper, kyanite, chromite, beryl, apatite, 93 percent iron ore, 84 percent coal, 70 percent chromite, 70 percent mica, 50 percent fire clay, 45 percent asbestos, 45 percent china clay, 20 percent limestone and 10 percent manganese.' Manganese, bauxite, uranium, limestone, marble, coal, gems, mica, graphite etc. exist in large quantities and the net extent of the minerals of the region is yet to be assessed. This is the second largest belt of minerals in the country. Ferrous minerals and bauxite. Low diversity. Iron ore, garnet and clay. Non-ferrous minerals, uranium, mica, beryllium, aquamarine, petroleum, gypsum and emerald. North Eastern Peninsular Belt Chota Nagpur plateau and th e Orissa plateau covering the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa.

Central Belt

Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh,Madhya Pradesh and Maharastra.

Southern Belt South Western Belt North Western Belt

Karnataka plateau and Tamil Nadu. Karnataka and Goa. Rajasthan and Gujarat along theAravali Range.

Number of Operating Mines in 2009-10 and 2010-11


2009-10
All Minerals (excluding atomic minerals, Petroleum, natural gas and minor 2999

2010-11
2628

minerals)
Coal Metallic Minerals Non-Metallic Minerals 574 700 1725 574 608 1446

Exports
Mineral Quantity Unit Mineral type
Item Ores and minerals (including iron ore) Iron Ore Petroleum Products Total exports 3.3 15.8 100 1.8 16.5 100 2009-10 4.8 2010-11 4.2

Coal
Lignite Natural Gas Crude Petroleum Bauxite Copper Gold Iron Ore Lead Manganese Ore Zinc Diamond Gypsum Limestone Phosphorite

403
29 31,007 32 11,278 125 3,048 140,131 93 1,963 862 60,155 3,651 170 1,383

Million tonnes
Million tonnes Million cubic metres Million tonnes

Fuel
Fuel Fuel Fuel

Thousand tonnes Metallic Mineral Thousand tonnes Metallic Mineral Thousand gramm Metallic Mineral es Thousand tonnes Metallic Mineral Thousand tonnes Metallic Mineral Thousand tonnes Metallic Mineral Thousand tonnes Metallic Mineral Carats Thousand tonnes Thousand tonnes Thousand tonnes Non Metallic Mineral Non Metallic Mineral Non Metallic Mineral

Non Metallic Mineral

Issues in Mining Industry


One of the most challenging issues in India's mining sector is the lack of assessment of India's natural resources. A number of areas remain unexplored and the mineral resources in these areas are yet to be assessed. The distribution of minerals in the areas known is uneven and varies drastically from one region to another. Laws and policies for meeting environment challengesThe National Forest Policy , 1988; The National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environmental and Development, 1992; The Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution, The National Environment Policy, 2006.[ The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974; The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 The Environment (Protection) Act 1986

Scams
Illegal iron ore mining in Karnataka Belekeri port scandal Illegal mining in the Aravali Range Bauxite, Iron Ore, Chromite and coal mining in Orissa Illegal mining in Goa

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