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Air Pollution

INTRODUCTION

Air Pollution Perspective
Air pollution is of public health concern on the micro, meso, and macro scales.

. Indoor air pollution results

from products used in construction materials, the inadequacy of general ventilation, and geophysical factors that may result in exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials

Industrial and mobile sources contribute to mesoscale air pollution that contaminates the ambient air that surrounds us outdoors. Macroscale (or global) effects include the transport of ambient air pollutants over large distances

AIR POLLUTION STANDARDS

The 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) required the U.S. EPA to investigate and describe the environmental effects of any air pollutants emitted by stationary or mobile sources that may adversely affect human health or the environment. The EPA used these studies to establish the National Ambient Quality Standards (NAAQS).

prevent .They develop these standards based on health criteria: Primary standard: established to protect human health with an adequate margin of safety. Secondary Standard: intended to environmental and property damage.

• attainment area -an AQR that has air quality equal to or better than the primary standard • nonattainment areas .AIR POLLUTION STANDARDS States are divided into air quality control regions (AQRs).those areas that do not meet the primary standard .

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS Factors that affects Deterioration Moisture. Delhi's air condition deteriorates . and position of exposed material are among the more important factors that influence the rate of deterioration. temperature. sunlight.

Sunlight: in addition to the oxidation effects of its ultraviolet wave lengths. Position of materials exposed: influences the rate of deterioration in two ways. Second.Factors that affects Deterioration Moisture: in the form of humidity. Higher Air Temperature: generally the result in higher reaction rates. whether the surface is an upper or lower one may alter the rate of damage. sunlight stimulates air pollution damage by providing the energy for pollutants formation and cyclic reformation. whether the surface is vertical or horizontal or at some angle affects deposition and wash-off rates. is essential for most of the mechanisms of deterioration to occur. . First.

Effects on Heath Pulmonary emphysema: is characterized by the break-down of the alveoli Cancer of the bronchus: characterized by abnormal. disorderly new cell growth originating in the bronchial mucous membrane .

Airway resistance is the narrowing of air passages because of the presence of irritating substances Bronchial asthma: is form of airway resistance that results from an allergy. . Chronic bronchitis: is currently defined to be present in person when excess mucus in the bronchioles results in cough for 3 months a year for two consecutive years.Effects on Heath Chronic Respiratory Disease Several long term diseases of the respiratory system are seriously aggravated by and perhaps may be caused by air pollution.

ORIGIN OR FATE OF AIR POLLUTANTS Carbon monoxide Incomplete oxidation of carbon results in the production of carbon monoxide. . Lead . Smelters and refining process. as well as incineration of leadcontaining wastes. are major sources of lead.Volcanic activity and airborne soil are the primary natural sources of atmospheric lead.

. Photochemical oxidants . In the upper troposphere and stratosphere.ORIGIN OR FATE OF AIR POLLUTANTS Nitrogen Dioxide Bacterial action in the soil releases nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. atomic oxygen reacts with the nitrous oxide to form nitric oxide. they are called secondary pollutants.the photochemical oxidants result entirely from atmospheric reaction and are not direct emission from either people or nature: thus.

In addition. biological decay processes and some industrial sources emit. industry. which is oxidized to form secondary pollutants.ORIGIN OR FATE OF AIR POLLUTANTS Sulfur oxides . volcanoes. Power plants.may be both primary and secondary pollutants. and oceans that emits directly as primary pollutants. .

. and in the broadest sense. Mesoscale: are those who few hectares up to the size of a city or country. nations.MICRO AND MACRO AIR POLLUTION Microscales:are problems range from those covering less than a centimeter to those the size of a house or slightly larger. the globe. Macroscale: problems extend from countries to states.

.6⁰C above the 1951-80. The average global surface temperature has being increasing for the last 100 years and was higher in 2000 than in any time in the past 200 years.Global Warming Scientific Basis: the case of global warming has grown very strong over the last two decades. The 5-year running average temperature in 200 was almost 0.

. In 1997. Turkey. and Kazakhstan. the protocol targets for industrialized countries to reduce their GHG emissions were finalized.Greenhouse Effect: Kyoto Protocol: the framework convention for the protocol was signed in 1992. To become legally binding two conditions had to be fulfilled: •Ratification by 55 countries •Ratification by nations accounting for at least 55% of emissions from 38 industrialized countries plus Belarus.

The driving energy for this unwieldy machine comes from the sun. and generally creating chaos. the difference in heat input between the equator and the poles provides the initial overall circulation of the earths atmosphere. exchanging heat. . It is continually expanding and compressing gases.AIR POLLUTION METEOROLOGY The Atmospheric Engine The atmosphere is somewhat like an engine.

the rather complex interaction that produces mechanical turbulence is confounded and further complicated by a third party. Heating on the ground surface causes turbulence in the same fashion that heating the bottom of the beaker of full water causes turbulence. Stability: the tendency of the atmosphere to resist or enhance the vertical motionis termed stability . Thermal Turbulence: like all other thing in nature.AIR POLLUTION METEOROLOGY Turbulence Mechanical turbulence: in its simplest term. we may consider turbulence to be the addition of random fluctuationof wind velocity to overall average wind velocity.

or the atmosphere is stable. Stable Atmosphere: if the temperature almost falls at a rate less than the lapse rate it is called subadiabatic. . Unstable Atmosphere: if the temperature of the atmosphere falls at a rate greater than the lapse rate it is said to be superadiabatic at the atmosphere is not stable.AIR POLLUTION METEOROLOGY Turbulence Neutral Stability: defined as the rate of temperature increase experienced by a parcel of air that expands adiabatically as it is raised through the atmosphere.

and the affects of terrain and anthropogenic structures. and dispersion of air pollutants can generally be categorized in terms of the emission point characteristics. .ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION Factors Affecting Dispersion of Air Pollutants The factors that affects the transport. dilution. meteorological conditions. the nature of the pollutant material.

ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION Source Characteristics Most industrial effluents are discharged vertically into the open air through a stack or duct. As the contaminated gas steam leaves the discharged point. . the plume tends to expand and mix with the ambient air. Horizontal air movement will tend to bend the discharge plume toward the downwing direction.

the greater will be the volume of air available for diluting the contaminant discharge before it reaches the receptor. the greater the diluting power. Wind speed affects the plume rise and the rate of mixing or dilution of the contaminated gases as they leave the discharge point. Stability The turbulence of the atmosphere follows no other factor in power of dilution.ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION Downwind Distance The greater the distance between the point of discharge and the ground level receptor downwind. The more unstable the atmosphere. . Wind Speed and Direction The wind direction determines the direction in which the contaminated gas stream will move across local terrain.

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL OF STATIONARY SOURCES Gaseous Pollutants Absorption: Control devices based on the principle of absorption attempt to transfer the pollutant from a gas to a liquid phase. . This is a mass transfer process in which the gas dissolves in the liquid. The removal of gas takes place in three steps:  Diffusion of the pollutant gas to the surface of the liquid.  Diffusion of the dissolved gas away from the interface into the liquid. Mass Transfer: is a diffusion process wherein the pollutant gas moves from points of higher concentration to points of lower concentration.  Transfer across the gas-liquid interface.

Typically. Combustion: When the contaminant in the gas stream is oxidazable to an inert gas. CO and hydrocarbons fall into this category. combustion is a possible alternative of method control. . The gas penetrates into the pores of the solid but not into the lattice itself.AIR POLLUTION CONTROL OF STATIONARY SOURCES Adsorption: is a mass transfer process in which the gas is bonded to a solid. It is a surface phenomenon. Adsorption isotherm: the relation between the amount of pollutants absorbed and the equilibrium pressure at constant temperature.

set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide (SO 2) from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants.AIR POLLUTION CONTROL OF STATIONARY SOURCES Flue Gas Desulfurization Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system fall into two broad categories: nonregenerative and the regenerative. . . and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes.

Regenerative: the reagent is recovered and reuse .Nonregenerative: the reagent used to remove the sulfur oxides from the gas stream is used and discarded.

Nine alternatives have been developed to reduce flame temperature.  Minimizing operating temperatures  Fuel switching  Low excess air  Flue gas recirculation  Lean combustion  Staged combustion  Low NOx combustion  Secondary combustion  Water-steam injection .Control Technologies for Nitrogen Oxides Prevention: The process in this category employ the fact that reduction on the peak temperature in the combustion ozone reduces NOx formation.

 SCR: this process uses a catalyst bed and anhydrous ammonia.Postcombustion Postcombustion: Three processes may be used to convert NOx to nitrogen gas: selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The NOx reacts with the ammonia in the catalyst bed to form N2 and water. nonselective catalytic (NSCR). ammonia is injected upstream of the catalyst bed. selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). . After the combustion process.

The urea is converted to ammonia.SNCR: in this process ammonia is injected into the flue gas at an appropriate temperature. . which reacts to reduce the NOx to N2 and water.

the collector od choice is the cyclone. The particulate laden gas is accelerated through a spiral motion. This is an inertial collector with no moving parts. .Particulate Pollutants Cyclones: For particle sizes greater than about 10µm in diameter. which imparts a centrifugal force to the particles.

Particulate Pollutants Filters: When high efficiency control of the particles smaller than 5µm is desired. . A packing of fibers is used to intercept particles in the gas stream. a filter may be selected as the control method. these are quite effective. such as air conditioning systems. and the baghouse. Two types are in use: the deep filter. Deep Filter: resembles a furnace filter. For relatively clean gases and low volumes.

Particulate Pollutants Baghouse: The bags are made of either natural or synthetic fiber. better temperature and chemical resistance characteristics. Synthetic fibers are widely used in filtration fabrics because of their low cost. and small fiber diameter. .

Liquid scrubber might. Typical scrubbing applications include control of emission of talk dust. phosphoric acid mist. the fabric may not work. foundry copula dust. .Particulate Pollutants Liquid scrubbing: When the particulate matter is to be collected is wet. and open heat steel furnace fumes. or corrosive.

dry collection of particles from hot gas streams can be obtained by electrostatic precipitation of the particles the ESP is usually constructed of alternating plates and wires. which results in the creation of an ion field between the wire and plate. A large direct current potential is established between the plates and wires.Particulate Pollutants Electrostatic Precipitation: High efficiency. .

Particulate Pollutants Control Technologies of Mercury: During combustion. the mercury in coal is volatized and converted to Hg⁰ vapor. As the flue gas cools a series of complex reactions convert Hg⁰ to Hg2+ and particulate Hg compounds. . The presence of chlorine favors the formation of mercuric chloride.

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL OF MOBILE SOURCES Engine Fundamentals Before we examine some cures for the pollution from the common gasoline engine. One kilogram of gasoline can burn completely when mixed with about 15 kg of air. mixture of fuel and air is fed into a cylinder and is compressed and ignited by a spark from the spark plug. The pistons motion is transmitted to the crankshaft that drives the car. The burnt. and jet. it may be useful to compare the three familiar types of engines: gasoline. The explosive energy of the burning mixture moves the pistons. . spent mixture passes out of the engine and out through the tail pipe. The Gasoline Engine: In the typical automobile engine with no air pollution controls. diesel.

the air supply is throttled. Thus a diesel normally operates at a higher air-to-fuel ratio than does a gasoline engine. there is no spark ignition system. . that is. Propulsion is obtained when air drawn into the front of the engine is compressed and then heated by burning fuel. The air is heated by compression.AIR POLLUTION CONTROL OF MOBILE SOURCES The Diesel Engine: The diesel engine differs from the four-stroke gasoline engine to two respects. First. The Jet Engine: Large commercial aircraft that use the thrust of compressed gases for propulsion may contribute significant amounts of particulates and NOx tourban atmosphere. its flow into the engine is unrestricted. Second.

Effect of Design and Operating Variables on Emissions List of variables that affect the internal combustion               Air-to-fuel ratio Load or power level Speed Spark timing Exhaust back pressure Valve overlap Intake manifold pressure Combustion chamber deposit buildup Surface temperature Surface-to-volume ratio Combustion chamber design Stroke-to-bore ratio Displacement per cylinder Compression ratio .

The simplest system is to place an activated charcoal absorver into the vent line. the VOCs are trapped on the activated carbon. This emission is called crankcase blowby. Thus. About 20%-40% of the car total hydrocarbon emissions are sent into the atmosphere form the crankcase.Control Of Automobile Emission Blowby: The air is drawn in through a vent and emitted through a tube extending from a crankcase at the rate that depends on the speed of the car. as the gasoline expands during warm weather and force vapor out of the vent. . Fuel Tank Evaporation Losses: Evaporation of volatile hydrocarbons (VOCs) from the fuel tank is controlled by one of two systems.

the gasoline in the float bowl continues to evaporate because of the high temperature in the engine compartment. Engine Exhaust: The number of techniques for reducing engine exhaust emissions far exceeds the list of engine variables that contributes to the production of emissions. the hydrocarbon vapor generated in the carburetor are vented internally to the engine intake system. . and exhaust treatment devices.Control Of Automobile Emission Carburetor Evaporation Losses: During engine operation. the control strategies can be grouped into three categories: engine modifications. fuel system modifications. After the engine is shut off. In general.

these devices wear out and fail. Because their failure does not inhibit the operation of an automobile. as with other aspects of running an automobile.Control Of Automobile Emission Inspection-Maintenance (I/M) programs: The devices installed by the automobile manufacturers are extremely successful in minimizing the pollution from the exhaust and from evaporating fuel. they are not likely to be repaired by the owner . However.

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