You are on page 1of 13

Computers

Historical Perspective

Chronology
1833 Charles Babbage (English mathematician) Analytical Engine / Difference Engine Concept of a universal digital calculator 1890 Dr. Herman Hollerith (Census Bureau) Invented and used punched cards 1920s Punched cards introduced in Canada and Europe Used by large companies and govts. 1930s 80-col card introduced, Accounting Machine introduced, 1940s Computers developed by several universities, Unit Record Machines introduced

Chronology
1946 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) 1950s Electromagnetic moving parts and vacuum tubes introduced; Remington Rand UNIVAC I developed. First commercial computer used in Federal govt., General Electric 1960s 1st transistor and disk storage introduced 1965 Multiple transistors produced on one physical wafer

Chronology
1970s multiple circuits combined into an individual chip (Large Scale Integration LSI, Very Large Scale Integration VLSI) 1980s computers that exhibit greater intelligence (microcomputers / DSS/ Office automation)

Computers
Introduced in the 1950s 1st Generation (Vacuum Tubes) 2nd Generation (Transistors) 3rd Generation (Wafers Multiple Transistors) 4th Generation (Chips LSI; VLSI) 5th Generation (Microprocessors)

COMPUTER GENERATIONS
1. VACUUM TUBES: 1946-1959 2. TRANSISTORS: 1957-1963 3. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 1964-1979 4. VERY LARGE-SCALE INTEGRATED (VLSI) CIRCUITS: 1980- PRESENT *

Computers 1950s to the 1980s


Data Processing (DP / EDP) Years Primary use - Speedy consolidation and processing of information

Computers in the 1980s


Introduction of the microcomputer the PC Portable, versatile open architecture Encompassed other applications that aided decision making Clones

Computers In the Decade of the 90s


Information Technology (IT) Computers positioned as strategic tools; exploited and utilized for gaining strategic and competitive advantage Included related automation and communications technologies

Computers 2000 to 2010


Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Convergence computers now linked to communications (telephony, TV, Internet) Mass storage Multimedia (world-wide-web, wired or wireless, voice / data / image or combinations)

Computers 2011 and Beyond


Emergence of Cloud Computing Growth of a Mobile Digital Business platform Use of Social Networks / Wikis / Blogs Web 2.0 and Web 3.0

3 Primary Computing Eras


1. DP or Mainframe Computer Era 2. Micro or PC Computing Era 3. Network or Pervasive Computing Era

Stages of Growth