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PRESENTED BY:

G VIGNESH

ABSTRACT
Energy conservation means more efficient use of

energy without reducing production levels and without sacrificing product quality, safety or environmental standards. of motors by reducing the amount of energy they consume

VFDs help to limit demand and electrical consumption

INTRODUCTION

Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) A VFD can be used to control both the speed and torque of a standard induction AC electric motor. It varies both the frequency and amps of the AC waveform being delivered to the motor saving money in electricity. Basic components of a VFD:

Input section, draws AC electric power from the utility, Rectifier section, converts the AC into DC power. Inverter section, converts DC back into a controllable AC waveform.

OPERATING PRINCIPLE
The synchronous speed of AC motor is determined by the frequency of the AC supply and number of poles in the stator winding according to the relation: n = (120 x f)/p where
n=revolutions per minute(rpm) f=AC power frequency(Hz) p=Number of poles per phase

VFD Fundamentals
A variable frequency drive converts incoming 50 Hz utility power into DC, then converts to a simulated variable voltage, variable frequency output
AC DC AC

RECTIFIER (AC - DC)

INVERTER (DC - AC)

50 Hz Power

50 Hz

Zero - 100 Hz

ABB

VFD
To Motor Zero - 100 Hz

Electrical Energy

VFD

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

CLASSIFICATION
Constant voltage converter: Intermediate DC link voltage remains

approximately constant during each output cycle.


Constant current drives: Large inductor is placed between the input

rectifier and the output bridge, so the current delivered is nearly constant.
Cycloconverter: No input rectifier or DC link and instead connects

each output terminal to the appropriate input phase.

MODE OF CONTROL
The most common type of packaged VF drive is the

constant-voltage type.
Uses pulse width modulation to control both the

frequency and effective voltage applied to the motor load

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Area Under The Square-Wave Pulses Approximates The Area Under A Sine Wave

Positive DC Bus

Negative DC Bus

INVERTER

RECTIFIER

Frequency

Voltage

RECTIFIER
Positive DC Bus

INVERTER

Negative DC Bus

Motor

RECTIFIER
Positive DC Bus

INVERTER

Negative DC Bus

Motor

RECTIFIER
Positive DC Bus

INVERTER

Negative DC Bus

Motor

RECTIFIER
Positive DC Bus

INVERTER

Negative DC Bus

Motor

RECTIFIER
Positive DC Bus

INVERTER

Negative DC Bus

Motor

RECTIFIER
Positive DC Bus

INVERTER

Negative DC Bus

Motor

RECTIFIER
Positive DC Bus

INVERTER

Negative DC Bus

Motor

VFD CONTROLLER
They are solid state electronic power conversion devices. First converts AC input power to DC intermediate power using a rectifier or converter bridge. Rectifier: usually 3-phase, full wave diode bridge. DC intermediate power is then converted to quasisinusoidal AC power using an inverter switching circuit.

Inverter circuit is probably the most important

section of the VFD - changes DC energy into three channels of AC energy that can be used by an AC motor.

In order to get the desired frequency we use the

pulse width modulation technique in the inverter section.

What is pulse width modulation?


Pulse width modulation is a modulation technique for

generating variable width pulses to represent the amplitude of an input analog signal or wave. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques is commonly used in a variable frequency drive scheme to control the rotational speed of an induction motor. The basic PWM control principle is the Volt/Hertz ratio which reflects the inductance properties of the motor windings.

When an induction motor is connected to a full

voltage supply, it draws several times (up to about 6 times) its rated current.
As the load accelerates, the available torque usually

drops a little and then rises to a peak while the current remains very high until the motor approaches full speed.
When a VFD starts a motor, it initially applies a low

frequency and voltage to the motor.

The starting frequency is typically 2 Hz or less.

Starting at such a low frequency avoids the high

inrush current that occurs when a motor is started by simply applying the utility (mains) voltage by turning on a switch.
After the start of the VFD, the applied frequency and

voltage are increased at a controlled rate or ramped up to accelerate the load without drawing excessive current.

Typically allows a motor to develop 150% of its rated

torque while the VFD is drawing less than 50% of its rated current from the mains in the low speed range.
A VFD can be adjusted to produce a steady 150%

starting torque from standstill right up to full speed.

ADVANTAGES

Potential power factor improvement up to .98

Improved system efficiency (Example, Cooling Tower). Reduced audible noise. Reduced wear on motors, belts, and other components, fewer revolutions per year. Greatly reduce maintenance cost of mechanical flow controls.