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Chabot College

ELEC 99.08
ping & traceroute

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ICMP
ICMP = Internet Control Message Protocol Layer 3 Part of TCP/IP suite of protocols

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ICMP
Layer 7 FTP
:21

HTTP
:80

DNS
:53

TFTP
:69

Layer 4

TCP
(connection-oriented)

UDP
(connectionless)

ICMP Layer 3 ARP IP


(includes Ping & Traceroute)

Layer 1 & 2
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Token Ring

Ethernet

FDDI

ICMP Echo Request


Called ping Important network testing tool Tests connectivity at layers 3-1 Most TCP/IP hosts can send pings
PCs routers

All TCP/IP hosts will reply to pings (unless configured to discard them for security reasons.)
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DOS Ping Display


C:\WINDOWS>ping 172.28.118.1 Pinging 172.28.118.1 with 32 bytes of data:

Successful replies Reply from 172.28.118.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.28.118.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.28.118.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255 Reply from 172.28.118.1: bytes=32 time=1ms TTL=255
Key results Ping statistics for 172.28.118.1: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 1ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 1ms

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Cisco IOS Ping Display


Differs in format from DOS display Contains same information Youll work with IOS ping in an upcoming lab.

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ICMP Echo Request


To check the configuration of layer 3-1 on your PC, you can ping a special internal test address - the loopback address. Try it now Open a DOS window >ping 127.0.0.1

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ICMP Echo Request


To check the configuration of layer 3-1 between your PC and another host, you can ping that hosts address. Try it now Open a DOS window >ping 172.28.118.10

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ICMP Echo Request


You can also use hostnames in the ping command (if DNS is running, or host tables are enabled). Try it now Open a DOS window >ping academy1

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Traceroute
Tool used to trace path from source to destination host. TCP/IP not designed for traceroute, so it is sometimes unpredictable.

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Traceroute Packets
Most traceroute programs, including the Cisco IOS traceroute, send UDP packets (User Datagram Protocol). Micrososft tracert sends ICMP echo request (ping) packets.

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Traceroute Command
Unix: traceroute Cisco IOS: traceroute (trace) DOS: tracert

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Traceroute Operation
Transmits packets with small Time-ToLive (TTL) values. First packets have TTL = 1 Second have TTL = 2 Third have TTL = 3 etc.

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Time to Live Field

TTL

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Traceroute Operation
Generates messages from each router used along the path. Every router that handles a packet subtracts one from the packet's TTL. If the TTL reaches zero, the packet has expired and is discarded. At that point, most routers send an ICMP Time Exceeded message back to the sender traceroute uses this message. A TTL value of one should produce a message from the first router; two from the second; etc.
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Traceroute Operation
Traceroute returns these IP addresses & hostnames (via reverse lookup) Sender Target

TTL = 1

TTL = 2

TTL = 3

TTL = 4

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Traceroute Documentation
Cisco has documented the operation and use of traceroute at
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/105/traceroute.shtml

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DOS Traceroute Display


C:\WINDOWS>tracert www.husd.k12.ca.us Tracing route to www.husd.k12.ca.us [206.110.193.5] over a maximum of 30 hops: Round trip time

Hop

Router

1 1 ms 1 ms 2 23 ms 32 ms 3 20 ms 19 ms 4 20 ms 19 ms 5 25 ms 51 ms 6 44 ms 37 ms 7 47 ms 40 ms Trace complete.

1 ms 32 ms 21 ms 19 ms 21 ms 43 ms 40 ms

192.168.0.1 adsl-63-198-176-254.dsl.snfc21.pacbell.net [63.198.176.254 core4-g3-0.snfc21.pbi.net [216.102.187.130] ded2-fa12-0-0.snfc21.pbi.net [209.232.130.5] vip-Alameda-Co.cust-rtr.pacbell.net [216.102.184.2] 206.110.252.174 www.husd.k12.ca.us [206.110.193.5]

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DOS Traceroute
Try it now Open a DOS window: >tracert porter >tracert www.husd.k12.ca.us

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Cisco IOS Traceroute Display


Differs in format from DOS display Contains same information Youll work with IOS trace in an upcoming lab.

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Cisco IOS Traceroute


Try it now Start Router e-SIM Give all your routers a configuration:
click SHOW DONE in the row of SET buttons at the bottom, click A, B, C, D, E click HIDE DONE

Login - Password - cisco Lab_A> trace Lab_E Lab_A> trace 210.93.105.2


click SHOW TOPOLOGY and compare to the trace results...
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