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Linear Momentum Conservation of Linear Momentum Impulse Collisions : Elastic & Inelastic Collisions Collisions in 2-Dimensions

Linear Momentum

Conservation of Linear Momentum

The principle of conservation of momentum states that when no external forces act on a system consisting of two objects that collide with each other, the total momentum of the system before the collision is equal to the total momentum of the system after the collision.

Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum The general statement of the law of conservation of linear momentum states that The total momentum of an isolated system of bodies remains constant and is given by pinitial = pfinal .

Newton’s Second Law of Motion .

000 kg railroad car traveling at a speed of 24 m s-1 strikes an identical car at rest. If the cars lock together as a result of the collision.EXAMPLE A 10. what is their common speed afterward ? .

SOLUTION .

Impulse .

Impulse .

.

What is the total impulse exerted by the wall? .375 kg rubber ball traveling horizontally to the right at 10 m s-1 hits a wall and bounces back at 6 m s-1 to the left.EXAMPLE A 0.

375 kg)(-6 -10 m s-1) (0. I = = = = = p = F t mv .375 kg)(-16 m s-1) I = -6.0 N s .SOLUTION Impulse.mu m (v – u ) (0.

of mass 0. is pitched at 40 m s-1 and is hit straight back at the pitcher at 90 m s-1. find the average force exerted on the ball (c) How would the result of part (b) change if the contact time were one-third as long . Assume the positive xaxis points toward the pitcher (a) Find the impulse exerted by the bat on the ball (b) If the ball is in contact with the bat for 3.2 kg.EXAMPLE A baseball.5 ms.

SOLUTION .

Collisions Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions Stationary Target Moving Target Collisions in 2-Dimensions (Glancing Collisions) .

) Total final kinetic energy is less than the total initial kinetic energy. Even though the kinetic energy is not conserved. If two objects stick together as a result of the collision. .Inelastic Collisions Collisions in which kinetic energy is not conserved. Initial kinetic energy is transformed into other types of energy (thermal. the total energy is conserved. potential etc. the collisions is inelastic.

1-Dimensional Inelastic Collisions .

Before Collision m1 v m2 at rest +x m1 + m2 V After Collision .

1-Dimensional Inelastic Collisions .

.

A bullet of mass m = 9.EXAMPLE A ballistic pendulum is a device that was used to measure the speeds of bullets before electronic timing devices were developed. coming quickly to rest. The block + bullet swing upward. (a) What was the speed v of the bullet just prior to the collisions.4 kg. their center of mass rising a vertical distance h = 6.5 g is fired into the block. (b) What is the initial kinetic energy? How much energy remains as mechanical energy? .3 cm before the pendulum comes momentarily to rest. hanging from two long cords. The device consists of a large block of wood of mass M = 5.

.

Elastic Collisions .

Elastic Collisions then [1] & [2] becomes m1 (v1i – v1f ) = m2v2f m1 (v1i – v1f )(v1i + v1f ) = m2v2f 2 [4] ÷ [3] [3] [4] m1 m2 v1 f v1 i m1 m2 2m1 v2 f v1 i m1 m2 .

Before Collision m1 v1i v2i = 0 m2 at rest After Collision m1 v1f m2 v2f .

Elastic Collisions Moving Target Conservation of linear momentum states that m1v1i + m2v2i = m1v1f + m2v2f [1] Conservation of kinetic energy states that ½ m1v1i 2 + ½ m2v2i 2 = ½ m1v1f 2 + ½ m2v2f 2 Combining the equations [1] & [2] will give us m1 m2 2m2 v1 f v1 i v2 i m1 m2 m1 m2 [2] and 2m1 m2 m1 v2 f v1 i v2 i m1 m2 m1 m2 .

.

Common type of non head-on collision is that a moving object strikes a second object initially at rest Law of conservation of momentum states that x: p1 x + p2 x = p1’ x + p2‘ x m1v1 = m1v1’ cos 1’ + m2v2’ cos 2’ y : p1y + p2 y = p1’ y + p2’ y 0 = m1v1’ sin 1’ + m2v2’ sin 2’ [1] [2] .Collisions in 2-Dimensions The vector nature of momentum especially in 2dimensions is very important.

v2’ . then the law of conservation of energy states that ½ m1v12 = ½ m1v1’ 2 + ½ m2v2’ 2 [3] From equations [1].Collisions in 2-Dimensions If the collisions is elastic. . v1 and v2 is given. we can solve for v1’ . [2] & [3]. m2 . 1’ and 2’ if m1 .

.

What are the speeds of the two ball? . That is 1’ = 45 and 2’ = -45. The two balls are observed to move off at 45. ball 1 above the x-axis and ball 2 below the x-axis.Example A billiard ball moving with speed v1 = 3.0 m s-1in the +x direction strikes an equal mass ball initially at rest.

0 m s-1)/ [2(0.1 m s-1 .7071)] = 2.Solution Assume that the two balls have the same speed (from symmetry). Conservation of momentum gives x: mv1 = mv1’ cos (45) + mv2’ cos (-45) v1 = v1’ cos (45) + v2’ cos (45) = 2v1’ cos (45) y: 0 = mv1’ sin (45) + mv2’ sin (-45) then v2’ = -v1’ [sin (45)/sin (-45)] = v1’ so v1’ = v2’ = v1 / 2 cos (45) = (3.

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