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Gross Techniques In Surgical Pathology

Gross examinations give an idea about size .Introduction The routine work associated with a surgical pathology specimen includes gross & microscopic examinations. gross description &selection of sections for microscopic study is a crucial part of pathologic examinations . The dissection. nodularity.shape of specimen &any gross abnormality like ulceration.

paraffin embedding method ( the routine & widely used procedure).cytological diagnosis (exfoliative & fine needle aspiration cytology.frozen section (intra-operative). 4. 3. 2.Preparations of sections for histopathology 1. .digital pathology & telepathology.

Paraffin embedding method Include the following principle steps: 1. The best fixative is 10% buffered formalin . fixatives include formaldehyde. Zenker’s solution. picric acid. Bouin’s solution.to preserve the tissue.fixation:.

preserve color of the tissue.special stains can be used on tissues fixed with it. 7. 2. 3.cheep.Advantages of Formalin 1.preserve RBCs & fatty tissue. . 8.good hardening. 5.good penetration into tissue. 6.cause little shrinkage. 4.always available.

3.Disadvantages of Formalin 1.if tissue preserved in formalin for long time.cannot preserve glycogen. . 2. formic acid will be formed which affect stainability of tissue with different stains. so it should be changed every 3-6 months.when formalin solution is stored for long period a white precipitate of para formaldehyde which will not affect the efficiency of formalin as a fixative & can be removed by alcohol.

Dehydration:. 4.Paraffin impregnation. 3.Clearing:.by using xyline. .by using different concentrations of alcohol.2.

Attaching sections to the slides. . the tissue is sliced into very thin sections ranging from 4-6 micrometer in thickness.Embedding:. 7.by using a microtome.to make the tissue as a block of hard paraffin 6.5.Sectioning:.

by using xylol & alcohol until the paraffin is dissolved. 10.the standard staining method is H & E which stain the nucleus blue (basophilic) & the cytoplasm pink-red (acidophilic).by using DPX &cover slip. .Deparaffinization:. 9.8.Staining:.Mounting:.

Histometry.X-ray microanalysis.Flow cytometry. sensitive &specific.Special Techniques In Surgical Pathology 1. 8.Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). 9.Cytogenetics.Special stains like PAS (periodic acid schiff) stain.Enzyme histochemistry. 4. Ziel-Neelson. 7.Immunohistochemistry. . 6.Tissue culturing. 5. Gram. 3. 10. Giemsa.Electron microscopy. 2.