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• Overburden Pressure

Pressure Relations

– Total weight of the rock and fluid above the depth of material (total weight of material) – Assume overburden pressure is 1psi/ft

• Formation Pressure
- The pressure of the fluid (Oil/gas/water) existing within the pore space of a rock formation. Also called Rock or Reservoir pressure

Formation Pressure Classification • Normal pressure • Subnormal pressure • Abnormal pressure

• Gulf of Mexico = 0.Formation Pressure Classification • Normal Pressure – Hydrostatic pressure exerted by all fluids in the formation above a depth of interest.465 psi/ft • Niger Delta = 0.442 psi/ft • Subnormal Pressure – Pressure that is lower than the actual pressure expected in the area Problems of subnormal pressure – Lost Circulation – Pipe sticking Reasons for Subnormal Pressure – Tectonic Movement – Depletion Reservoir .

Formation Pressure Classification • Abnormal Pressure – Pressure gradient is greater than expected/actual pressure in that area Problems of Abnormal Pressure – Kick – Blowout Reasons For Abnormal Pressure – – – – Earthquakes Tectonic movements Stresses in the subsurface Casing leakage in nearby area .

Importance of Formation Pressure determination • Essential for proper well planning and drilling practises • Lessens the frequency and severity of kicks and blowouts • Reduces differential pipe sticking • Maximizes Penetration rate • Reduces formation damage • Minimizes drilling cost .

• The pressure at which an increase in the mud will fracture the formation. Reasons for Determining Formation Fracture Pressure • Minimizes or avoids lost circulation problem • Proper selection of casing seat depth (casing shoe) * Field Determination – Leak-off test or Pressure Integrity Test * Leakoff Pressure – The point at which an increase in pressure pump into the well will tear and there will a decrease in pressure Formation Fracture Gradient .

• Blow out: It is an uncontrolled flow of formation fluid from the borehole .WELL CONTROL • Kick : It is an flux of formation fluids into the borehole that causes an unequal volume of drilling fluids to be displaced from the drilling hole.

Use BOP • Tertiary control – Techniques to control blow-out when it has occurred .• Primary control STAGES OF WELL CONTROL – The pressure exerted by drilling fluid to hold back formation fluid from entering the borehole before casing • Secondary control – It arises from the failure from primary control – Surface equipment is closed to stop further entry of formation fluids.

• Reduction on the mud hydrostatics which could arise as failure to fill hole during pull-out • Drop in level of mud weight in the hole • Low density of formation fluids being swabbed in during tripping CAUSES OF KICK SWABBING FACTORS • • • • Pulling too fast High viscosity mud Small collar to hole clearance Balling up of bit • Increased in formation pressure .

• • • • • • • • KICK WARNING SIGNS Improper fillup or displacement during trips Connection gas (gas caught mud) Increased drill rate Flowline mud temperature increase Increased drillstring torque&drag Increased number and quantity of cutting Decreasing shale density Lost circulation .

• Excess flow from the well when tripping • Return flow rate increase when pumping • Pit gain SURFACE KICK INDICATOR • Drilling break • Flow from the well when pumps are shutoff .

– This is done using BOP .KILL METHODS • • • • Driller’s method Wait and weight method Concurrent method Volumetric method SHUTTING THE WELL – Any further influx of formation fluid into the well to be stopped – To determine the pressure of the formation fluid so that the well can be killed with a heavier mud.

DIRECTIONAL DRILLING • This is the process of directing the wellbore along a specific trajectory to reach a specific depth. . • Deviation control is the process of keeping the wellbore contained within prescribed limit relative to inclination angle and the horizontal extension from the vertical.

– Inclination angle .2o – 6o/100’ – Radius – 1000 – 3000’ • Medium radius well Well turns from vertical to horizontal at Inclination angle – 8o – 20o/100’ Radius – 285 – 700’ Most commonly used because most tools can pass through it and very effective for horizontal drilling .• Long radius well DIRECTIONAL WELL – Well achieves a large horizontal displacement before reaching the target.

5 – 3o/ft – Can reach 90o in 20 – 60’ of hole – Horizontal length are limited to few hundred feet – There are difficulties to pass completion tools through the tight radius .DIRECTIONAL WELL • Short radius wells – Inclination angle – 1.

Deviation from vertical in degrees • Kick off point: – Well depth at which inclination is initiated • Build Section: .DEFINITIONS • Measured depth (MD) : – Actual drill string measurement • Drift/inclination angle: .Deviated length of the well from the kick off point .

DEFINITIONS • Build up rate: .Rate at which the well deviates • Tangent .Direction of the well with respect to the true north .Length of the straight section of the well after the build section • True vertical depth – The true vertical depth as calculated from the directional survey • Azimuth .

APPLICATIONS OF DIRECTIONAL DRILLING • • • • • • • • Side tracking Inaccessible locations Fault control Multi Exploration wells from single wellbore Onshore drilling to offshore location Relief well Extended reach wells Offshore multi well drilling .

DIRECTIONAL WELL PLANNING • Factors consider – Design trajectory – Geology of the area – Bottom hole assemblies • Well Trajectories: – Build and hold – Build hold and drop (“S” type) – Modified “S” – Continous build .

Wedge makes the deflection in the required direction .Once deflection is made. whipstock is retrieved and hole reamed to full guage .DEFECTION TOOLS Drill string device that causes the bit to drill at an angle to the existing hole • Badger Bit – Technique uses the fluid power direct through an enlarged bit nozzle – Used in soft formation and requires close control • Whip Stock .Steel wedge which is run in hole and set at the kick off point .

Available in ranges 1 – 3o • Navigation Sub (Steerable system) • • Standard mud motor converted to steerable motor by tilting the bit at a predetermined angle (Positive displacement motor) Ensures deflection forces are applied to the face of the bit.DEFECTION TOOLS • Rebel Tool – Designed to make lateral push to either left or right ADVANTAGES .Cheaper than using down hole motor .Allows normal drilling to continue . .Bent Sub .Short length of collar size pipe specially designed so that the axis of the lower connection is offset from the vertical .Makes gradual change in direction .

HORIZONTAL DRILLING • Refers to well at 90o to the vertical (parallel to bedding plane) • A special aspect of directional drilling • HD is a procedure for drilling and completing oil and gas well with improved productivity MAJOR REASON FOR HORIZONTAL DRILLING • Increase rate of return on investment (better economics) • Productivity increase .

• • • • • • APPLICATION/CANDIDATE SELECTION OF HORIZONTAL WELLS Gas or water coning Tight Reservoirs Inaccessible reservoirs Heavy oil recovery Thin reservoir Reduced number of platforms and wells needed to develop a field and better coverage of the reservoir from existing platform .

LIMITATIONS • Only one payzone can be drained per horizontal section • Cost 1.4 – 3 times vertical wells • High production related problems • Well spacing .

flow rate.rheology) Tortuosity consideration – Hole drag & torque • Solid control • Casing consideration – – – – Geology at the point of target Interference with other wells Torque and drag as it affects casing Wear consideration and bending stress .DESIGN FACTORS • • • • • Rig sizing Drill string capacity Directional well planning Plan for drilling hydraulics (hole cleaning.