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PIPING MATERIALS

B. A. Bhanvase
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- Challenge of choosing the correct piping materials of construction!!
- The Piping Material Engineer, the individual responsible for the selection and the specifying of piping material for process facilities.

- A piping material engineer’s role is driven by codes, standards, technical data, and catalogued information.

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.. procurement.What is a PIPING MATERIAL ENGINEER? . 3 . and paint the piping systems. and construction) contractor or the operator/end user. insulate.The individual responsible for creating the project piping classes and the numerous piping specifications necessary to fabricate. test.This individual can be employed by either the EPC (engineering.

insulation. and painting. Structural.  Review offers from vendors and create a technical bid evaluation. Process. the testing of piping components. Procurement. visit the vendor’s premises to attend kickoff meetings. such as hoses and hose couplings. Vessels. or clarification meetings.  Assemble a piping material requisition with all additional documents.  Co-operate with the following departments: Piping Design and Stress. Instrumentation.  After placement of a purchase order. shop and field testing.  Make a technical recommendation. 4 .  Write specifications for fabrication.  Create and maintain all data sheets for process and utility valves. Mechanical.  When required.  Create a list of piping specials. steam traps.The Piping Material Engineer’s Responsibilities  Develop the project piping classes for all process and utility services. review and approve documentation from vendors related to piping components. interlocks.  Create and maintain data sheets for these piping special (SP) items. Material Control.

Familiar areas should include the following:  Corrosion  Welding  Piping stress  Static equipment  Rotating equipment  Instruments 5 .Experience .Strong areas should include piping design layout and process requirements. .

and painting (3) Creating all data sheets for process and utility valves (4) Creating a list of piping specials and data sheets (5) Assembling piping material requisition with all additional documents (6) Reviewing offers from vendors and create a technical bid evaluation (7) After placement of a purchase order.The Piping Material Engineer’s Activities (1) Development of the project piping classes (2) Writing specifications for fabrication. shop and field testing. reviewing and approving documentation related to all piping components (8) Vendor visits (9) Bids for new projects 6 . insulation.

falling into three groups: – Support – Instrument air. which lists all the components required to construct the piping. which applies to the various recycling systems. They are there to support the primary process.Development of the project piping classes • All process plants have of two types of principal piping system: – Process pining systems – Utility piping system – Process piping systems can be further divided into primary process. cooling water. which is the main process flow and secondary process. • Utility piping systems are no less important. A pipe class includes the following: – – – – – Process design conditions Corrosion allowance Lists of piping components Special assemblies Support notes 7 . nitrogen – Protection – foam and firewater • Piping Classes: Each piping system is allocated a piping class. steam – Maintenance – plant air.

and painting • It is pointless to specify the correct materials of construction is the pipe is fabricated and erected by poor qualified labor. insulation and painting. shop and field testing.Writing specifications for fabrication. • The piping material engineer is responsible for writing project narratives covering these various activities to guarantee that they meet industry standards and client’s requirements. using bad construction methods and inadequate testing inspection. 8 . insulation.

• This document is passport for the component. • This VDS is essential for the efficient procurement and the possible future maintenance of the valve 9 . design temperature. pressure rating. • It details the size ranges. material of construction. testing and inspection procedures .Creating all data sheets for process and utility valves • All valves used within a process plant must have a dedicated valve data sheet (VDS).

10 . • This second group. must carry an SP number as an identifying tag. fittings and valves. less common piping items may be required. hoses and hose couplings. • However.Creating a list of piping specials and data sheets • A piping system generally comprises common components such as pipe. such as strainers. steam traps. called piping specials.

11 . the piping material engineer is responsible for assembling the requisition packages.Assembling piping material requisition with all additional documents When all the piping specifications have been defined and initial quantities identified by the Material Take-off Group.

the environment and services. -Making a quality component (material) is very important for which we add key ingredients (alloys) to the base element (iron). -Each alloying element brings a unique and valuable characteristic to the component mix.Materials -Selection of material for piping depends on its compatibility with the fluid. 12 .

White. Thermosetting. Malleable Non-Metals Plastic Ni Alloys Cu Alloys Al Alloys Iron Steel Thermoplastic. Fiber Reinforcement High Alloy (SS) Medium Alloy (Cr-Mo) Carbon High C Medium C Low C 13 . Ductile.Material Classification Pipe Material Metals Non-Ferrous Ferrous Non-Plastic (Concrete) Wrought Iron Cast Iron Gray Cast.

hence suited for casting. .generally includes [2% C. tubes. 1% Si OR 3% C. .On the basis of %C Cast Iron can be classified as: # Gray Cast Iron # Ductile Iron # White Iron # Malleable Iron 14 .7 (wt %). . .used for making bars.Ferrous Pipe [A] IRON: (a) Wrought Iron: crushed iron melted with addition of (charcoal + crushed limestone). (b) Cast Iron: includes series of (Fe+C) alloys with C in excess of 1. 1.5% Si].has very good flow characteristics. slabs and plates.

suited for shock applications with ductility (ASTM A 395. ASTM A 439.# Gray Cast Iron: produced by slow cooling of the iron with large proportion of Graphite flakes. ASTM A 571). # Malleable Iron: White cast iron has been annealed with large proportion of graphite and Cementite to form malleable iron.It is a hard material which fractures easily. . . # Ductile Iron: produced by rapid cooling of melt iron with large proportion of Graphite Spherical Nodules. # White Iron: carbon is in the form of cementite(Fe3C) . . . ASTM A 536.It is ductile as well as having a good hardness.specially used for culvert pipe.used for machinery pedestals and engine blocks (ASTM A 395. ASTM A 536. ASTM A 439. ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials API – American Petroleum Institute 15 .ASTM A 571).

16 . water or air service includes (ASTM A106. 0. (b) Alloy Steel: ( low alloy steel contains less than 5% total alloys(ASM)) . ASTM A 53). . . . 0.Specifications for commonely used low alloy steels are (ASTM A 335 P2).3% chromium. process.Alloy steel contains( 0.Commonly used in high temperature service. chemical. (a) Carbon Steel: It is most common pipe material in the power. heat exchangers. (ASTM A 335 P5 to P9). (ASTM A 335 P22).(ASTM A 335 P 21).(ASTM A 335 P11). and furnace tubes and chemical plants. containing less than 1.7% C. and pipeline industries.Commonly used steel for pipelines is (API 5 L). . .( ASTM A 335 P12).08% molybdenum (Mo) (ASTM A 941). hydrocarbon.[B] STEEL: alloys of Fe + C.Used in high pressure steam lines in power plants.3% nickel.Carbon steel specifications commonly used in steam. ( ASTM A 335 P3b).

common example is SS with chromium content is (ASTM A 941).(ASTM A 316). chloride. 17 . .(ASTM A 181) and (ASTM A 182) carbon steels. .(ASTM A 304L) and (ASTM A 316L) is useful in decreasing the precipitation of inter granular carbides and corrosion. .Ferrite alloy steel like (ASTM A 405) and (ASTM A 430) is used for high temperature service. .Forgings are made up of (ASTM A 105). .Plate materials in the piping systems is made of (ASTM A 570) for carbon steel and (ASTM A 240) for SS. .(ASTM A 304) are more resistant to sea waters. and sulphur hence useful for under water pipeline.(c) High Alloy Steel: contains over 10% of Cr.

18 . .Used for construction of flanges. (ASTM B 166).Used for construction of fittings.Alloys such as: Hastelloy: (ASTM B 282) . .Used for construction of flange. (ASTM C 276)] used for pipe Construction.Non-Ferrous Pipe [A] Al Alloys: Al reacts with oxygen to form corrosive resistant.Used for construction of seamless pipe.Ni alloys are useful in the corrosive and high temp applications.Used for construction of fittings. (ASTM B 164).used for construction of seamless pipe. protective oxide layer hence used. . [B] Ni Alloys: Ni is ductile material having high strength and good corrosion resistant. Monel: (ASTM B 165). (ASTM B 366) . Inconel: (ASTM B167).Mechanical properties are useful up to temperature 300 degree F. (ASTM B 366).

. bronze and brass.[C] Cu Alloys: Copper alloys are made by alloying copper.commonly used copper alloy for tubing is (ASTM B 88).they are corrosion resistant in water hence used for making pipes. . 19 .

. Manganese (Mn) . Molybdenum (Mo).improve castability.deoxidizes and desulfarised steel. If Mn/C > 3 . Mn > 0. Chromium (Cr) – increase resistance to abrasion and wear. also improve resistance to high temperature hydrogen attach and to coat with graphite. improves hot . Silicon (Si) – is deoxidizer that capture dissolved oxygen and avoids . manganese improves impact toughness. 20 . avoiding brittle iron sulphides. porosity. at the cost of reduced ductility.workability and refines grain.enhances creep resistance and high temperature strength.8 tends to harden steel.Role of elements to improve material property Carbon (C) – increase strength and hardness.improves resistance to pitting corrosion in many environment. It traps sulphur impurities.

Phosphorous (P) – increase the ultimate strength of steel .Nickel (Ni) – causes a significant improvement in fracture toughness and fatigue resistance. 21 .scavengers sulfur and improves atmosphere corrosion. Vanadium (V) . Copper (Cu) .improves a steel resistance to hydrogen attach at high temperature. Aluminum (Al) – improves the deoxidization achieved with silicon.

Selecting process piping materials  Is the alloy available in the size and thickness required?  Is it the most economical choice?  Should it be specified as seamless or welded?  Is it suitable for the maximum anticipated operating temperature or will long-term exposure to these temperatures cause its mechanical properties to deteriorate?  Will it require special welding or heat treatment requirements? 22 .

23 .PROPERTIES CONSIDERED WHEN SELECTING MATERIALS Machinability Components may be formed by removing metal "chips" by mechanical deformation. with respect to the amount of metal effectively removed and the surface finish attainable. This process is referred to as machining. Machinability describes how a metal reacts to mechanical deformation by removing chips.

It also becomes important in components that are subject to tension and compression. Formability of a material is its ability to withstand peripheral expansion without failure or the capacity of the material to be too manufactured into the final required shape.Formability Components may be formed by processes such as rolling or bending. Plastic response. at every temperature between the lowest service temperature and the highest service temperature. which may cause some parts of the metal to expand more than others. is particularly important when a material is to be formed by causing the material to flow during the manufacture of a component. or plasticity. 24 . Ductility Ductility is the plastic response to tensile force.

and high pressure. the stability of the materials selected for service in these areas is a major consideration. high radiation. Fabricability Fabricability is a measure of the ease with which a material can be worked and made into desirable shapes and forms. such as high temperatures. therefore. can be considered extreme and harsh. high acid.Stability Stability of a material refers to its mechanical and chemical inertness under the conditions to which it will be subjected. 25 . Some of these environments. Availability The availability of a material used in the construction of nuclear plants refers to the ease with which a material can be obtained and its cost.

26 . Mechanical Strength Mechanical strength plays an important role in selecting reactor materials. In case of nuclear reactors.Heat Transfer Good heat transfer properties are desirable from the fuel boundary to the coolant in order that the heat produced will be efficiently transferred. therefore. high mechanical strength is desirable because of its possible degradation due to radiation damage and the need to contain the radioactive liquids and fuel. Cost A major portion of the cost is for plant material. cost is an important factor in the selection of plant materials.

or Below-ground Installation Interior/Exterior Exposure Specific Code Agencies/Approvals 27 . conditions of service for the liquid to be handled and the suitability of the materials for those service conditions must be known.Detailed description of selection the proper material Selecting the Proper Plastic Piping Material To select the proper plastic piping material. Service Conditions Check List Type of Application Type of Fluid(s) Working Pressure (min/max) Working Temperature (min/max) Velocity (max) Specific Gravity Viscosity Particulates Piping Size Range Above. Listed is a summary and example of selecting the proper plastic piping material.

TIPS for Material Selection Chemical Compatibility Pressure/Temperature Compatibility Piping Size and Product Availability Piping System Joining Method Price Comparability 28 .

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