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Engineering Flow Diagrams

Process flow diagram (PFD)

The process flow diagram (PFD) represents a quantum step up from the block flow diagram in terms of the amount of information that it contains.

The PFD contains the bulk of the chemical engineering data necessary for the design of a chemical process.

A typical commercial PFD will contain the following information:

 

All the major pieces of equipment in the process along with a description of the equipment. (equipment number and a descriptive name.) All process flow streams (identified by a number) A description of the process conditions and chemical composition of each stream will be included. These data will be displayed either directly on the PFD or included in an accompanying flow summary table. Utility streams. Basic control loops, illustrating the control strategy

The basic information provided by a PFD can be categorized into one of the following:    Process Topology Stream Information Equipment Information .

Process Topology   The location of and interaction between equipment and process streams is referred to as the process topology Equipment is represented symbolically by "icons" that identify specific unit operations .

List of the symbols used in process diagrams .

Conventions Used for Identifying Process Equipment .

P-101A/B indicates that a back-up pump is installed.Consider the unit operation P-101A/B and what each number or letter means. there are two identical pumps P-10lA and P-101B. One pump will be operating while the other is idle.      P-101A/B identifies the equipment as a pump P-101A/B indicates that the pump is located in area 100 of the plant P-101 A/B indicates that this specific pump is number 01 in unit 100. Thus. replacement .

Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the production of benzene via the hydrodealkylation of toluene .

Conventions for Identifying Process and Utility Stream .

Stream Information   - characteristics of the streams such as temperatures. adjacent to the stream. compositions. pressures. for a more complex diagram stream number is provided on the diagram Other info on flow summary or stream table . and flowrates can be shown directly on the figure.

flow summary or stream table .

.Equipment Information   Equipment Information information necessary to estimate the costs of equipment and furnish the basis for the detailed design of equipment.

Equipment Descriptions for PFD .

Stream Data." .Combining Topology. and Control Strategy to Give a PFD  Information flags Stream information is added to the diagram by attaching "information flags.

Information critical to the safety and operation of the plant should be given . - -  Role of information flags provide information needed in the plant design leading to plant construction analysis of operating problems during the life of the plant.


Piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID). -Provides information needed by engineers to begin planning for the construction of the plant. -The P&ID includes every mechanical aspect of the plant except the information given in Table below. . -Each PFD will require many P&IDs to provide the necessary data -The primary element of a piping design is the piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID).

Exclusions from Piping and Instrumentation Diagram .

Conventions in Constructing Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams .


An example of a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) .

P&ID for this PFD .


each pipe can be numbered. all control logic is based on the effect that a change in a given flowrate has on a given variable The response time of the system and type of control action used—for example. information on the piping As an alternative. and the specifics of every line can be provided in a separate table accompanying this diagram Utility connections process information .circular flags in virtually all cases of process control in chemical processes. the final control element is a valve.       . proportional. or differential-is left to the instrument engineers. integral.

Conventions Used for Identifying Instrumentation on P&IDs .

Instrument engineers will specify.Based on this diagram     Mechanical engineers and civil engineers will design and install pieces of equipment. . Project engineers will develop plant and construction schedules. Piping engineers will develop plant layout and elevation drawings. and check control systems. install.

The P&ID is also used to train operators .   P&ID is the last stage of process design Before final acceptance. the P&ID serve as a checklist against which each item in the plant is checked.

What is Material Take Off (MTO)? What is Bill of Material (BOM)? What is Bill of Quantity (BOQ)? .

We then use the material takeoff to create a Bill of Materials. .1. Procurement and requisition are activities that occur after the Bill of Materials is complete. Material takeoff ( MTO):• • A Material Take off (MTO) is the process of analyzing the drawings and determining all the materials required to accomplish the design.

The MTO is the finished product of a work activity (i. Unit or total job depending on how the "MTO" was executed.: Okay let’s start the Material Take Off). . . .This can be a noun and a verb.: Let me see the Material Take Off). MTO= Material Take Off .MTO is also the activity itself (i.e.e.In this case the "MTO" is a rather thick stack of computer print-outs that reflect all of the (piping) material requirements for the Area. In this case the "MTO" is the action of doing a mass download of all the material from the computer models design data base. .

. Bill of Materials (BOM):• • A Bill of Material (B. Other information such as scrap factors may also be included in the BOM for use in materials planning and costing. ingredients.O.) is a hierarchical list of materials (components. showing the quantity of each required item. subassemblies.) required to produce an item. A manufacturing BOM represents the assembly build-up the way a product is manufactured.2. An engineering BOM represents the assembly structure implied by the parts lists on drawings and drawing tree structure.M.

A Bill of Material is (normally) the listing of material required for one pipe line or segment thereof. . Each Isometric should have a BOM attached.• • Bill of material reflecting the product as designed by engineering. BOM= Bill of Material This is a noun. such as an Isometric. referred to as the “as-designed" bill of material.

 These documents originated historically as noncontractual measurements. Bill of Quantities ( BOQ): Bill of quantities is used as a form of cost planning and mapping to monitor and control the construction cost during the execution or post-contract period of construction.3. . taken off drawings to assist tenderers in quoting lump sum prices.

material. it is printed out in a form that would be forwarded to the purchasing department for the actual purchase. BOQ= Bill of Quantities This would be a noun. There are different styles of bills of quantities. size. . These documents were the result of taking all the material collected in the "MTO" and after sorting it by type. we used the term "Material Summaries" for this. and then later used as a tender document to acquire bidding from the contractors who would be interested in winning the job. etc. mainly the Elemental BOQ and Trade Bills.   Bills of quantities are drawn up and specified by a cost professional called a quantity surveyor and prepared in advance to take into account the works required for a project.

 Bill of Material (BOM) Mainly Contains:- SR No Tag No Description Size Quantity .

Tag No is given to the Mainly to the : Pipes  Valves  All types of fittings  Gasket material used  Type of bolt and nut used  All types of valves  .

ASME .DIN etc)  Material of Construction (MOC)  Schedule No  Grade of Material  Pressure-temperature Rating Class    Quantity:Quantity gives the number of items .BIS.Description Mainly Contains: Standard used (i. .e.