You are on page 1of 43

Expansion Joints

P. B. HIRAVE

When piping lacks inherent flexibility due to routing and/or develops large reactions or detrimental overstrain on the strain sensitive equipments, the Piping Engineer considers provision of expansion joints to overcome the same. Expansion joints are also provided to isolate the vibrating equipment from piping and also to facilitate free movement of the equipment mounted on load cells.

Slip type of expansion joints

Fig 2.1

The Point of usage could be identified as below At the suction and discharge nozzles of vibrating equipments such as pumps, blowers etc.,  On large diameter pipes and ducts operating at high temperatures but at lower pressures.  In piping where the space is inadequate for conventional arrangement for providing flexibilities. It is not advisable to use the expansion joint in all piping systems. The major areas of applications where its use is not advisable are following piping systems.  where hazardous chemicals are handled.  where the service is high pressure.  in which slurry or suspended solids are handled.

Expansion joints are available in the following materials of construction. the material of construction of the same is selected.MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION Based on the service for which the expansion joint is selected/used. Rubber PTFE Canvas Metal     .

Types of Expansion Joint Movements  Axial Movement Fig.5.1 .

 Lateral Deflection Fig. 5.2 .

5.3 .Fig.

4 . 5. Angular Rotation Fig.

5. Torsional Movement IN ADDITION TO AXIAL. AN EXPANSION JOINT MAY BE SUBJECTED TO TORSIONAL MOTION OR TWISTING. LATERAL AND ANGULAR MAVEMENTS. Fig. TORSION IMPOSES SEVERE STRESSES ON THE EXPANSION JOINT AND ALL SUCH CASES SHOULD BE REFERRED TO THE MANUFACTURER.5 .

COMPONENTS AND ACCESSORIES Fig. 6.1 .

6.Fig.2 .

        Bellow Tangent Collar Reinforcing Rings Lagging Shroud Internal Sleeves Limit Rods Tie Rods .

Types of Expansion Joints         Shipping Devices Pantographic Linkages Axial – Single /Double Universal Swing Hinged Gimbal Pressure Balanced Tied .

SINGLE EXPANSION JOINT This is the simplest form of expansion joint of single bellows construction.1a . Fig.AXIAL. 7. It absorbs all of the movement of the pipe section into which it is installed.

A universal expansion joint is used in cases where it is necessary to accommodate greater amounts of lateral movement than can be absorbed by a single expansion joint Fig. 7.2 .UNIVERSAL EXPANSION JOINT A universal expansion joint is one containing two bellows joined by a common connector for the purpose of absorbing any combination of three (3) basic movements.

The anchor base may be attached to the common connector either at installation or at the time of manufacturing.DOUBLE EXPANSION JOINT A double expansion joint consists of two bellows jointed by a common connector which is anchored to some rigid part of the installation by means of an anchor base. Each bellow of a double expansion joint functions independently as a single unit. . Double bellow expansion joints should not be confused with universal expansion joints.

each of which is pinned at or near the ends of the unit.SWING EXPANSION JOINT A swing expansion joint is designed to absorb lateral deflection and/or angular rotation in one plane only by the use of swing bars. .

Hinged expansion joints should be used in sets of 2 or 3 to function properly. .HINGED EXPANSION JOINT A hinged expansion joint contains one bellow and is designed to permit angular rotation in one plane only by the use of a pair of pins running through plates attached to the expansion joint’s ends.

GIMBAL EXPANSION JOINT A gimbal expansion joint is designed to permit angular rotation in any plane by the use of two pairs of hinges affixed to a common floating gimbal ring. .

This type of joint is installed where a change of direction occurs in a run of pipe .PRESSURE BALANCED EXPANSION JOINT A pressure balanced expansion joint is designed to absorb axial movement and/or lateral deflection while restraining the bellows pressure thrust force by means of the devices interconnecting the flow bellow with an opposed bellow also subjected to line pressure.

2 Fig 9.Axial Expansion Joints Tied / Untied Fig 9.3 .

4 Fig 9.5 .Axial Expansion Joints Tied / Untied Fig 9.

7 .Universal Expansion Joints Fig 9.6 Fig 9.

Universal Expansion Joints Fig 9.8 Fig 9.10 .9 Fig 9.

13 .11 Fig 9.Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints Fig 9.12 Fig 9.

15 Fig 9.14 .Pressure Balanced Expansion Joints Fig 9.

17 .16 Fig 9.Hinged Expansion Joints Fig 9.18 Fig 9.

20 .Hinged Expansion Joints Fig 9.19 Fig 9.

21 .22 Fig 9.Gimbal Expansion Joints Fig 9.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Type of Expansion Joint Axial Universal Swing Hinged Gimbal Pressure Balanced Tied Axial Lateral Angular Movemen Movemen Rotation t t Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Eliminatio n of Pr.Selection Chart Sr. No. Thrust No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes .

1 .Glossary of terms          Pipe Anchor Main Anchor Intermediate Anchor Pipe Guides Directional Stop / Anchor Spring Rate Spring Force Pressure Thrust Cycle Life Fig 8.

1 Pipe guide location .Fig 9.

.SINGLE EXPANSION JOINT APPLICATION FIG B.

DOUBLE EXPANSION JOINT APPLICATION FIG C. .

UNIVERSAL TIED APPLICATION FIG F. .

.UNIVERSAL TIED APPLICATION (THREE PLANE) FIG G.

Two Hinge Application Fig. F .

Three Hinge Application Fig. H .

Two Gimbal Application (Three Plane) Fig. I .

One Hingle / Two Gimbal Application (Three Plane) Fig. . J.

M .Pressure Balanced Application Fig.

bellow gets damaged.Slight increase in pressure. Once squirm develops.Squirm or Buckle Expansion joints in a system may squirm or buckle when subjected to high pressure. the side wall bulges and the rate of deformation accelerates. . ruptures the bellow. Meridional bulge come after the squirm failure. Bellows become laterally unstable and the suddenly squirm out ways thereby stretching and deforming configurations. When stress reaches plastic range.