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Buyer’s Perspective
TODAY YESTERDAY • Demand of  Speed  Comfort  Amenities • Demand of  Style  Designs  Advanced technology  Brand

Recent Technology Development

Safety Technological Development

• Night Vision • Global Positioning System • In-Car Internet • Self Parked System • Emergency Brakes • Airbags • Rear-view Camera • Rollover Protection • Blind Spot Detection

Seller’s Perspective
• Discovered IT as a strategic business asset. • Tying up with software vendors to use software in cars. • Car manufacturers taking help in two broad aspects  Using sophisticated technology to provide enhanced features.  IT as a tool for better sales and administration.

Developing Trends of Automotive Electronic Systems
• Rise of importance of software in the Car

MICROPROCESSORS in Cars • The need for sophisticated engine controls to meet emissions and fuel-economy standards • Advanced diagnostics • Simplification of the manufacture and design of cars • Reduction of the amount of wiring in cars • New safety features • New comfort and convenience features .

Electronic Control Unit (ECU)  An ECU is an embedded system that controls/monitors systems in a car. Combination of ECUs is known as the cars computer.    . The cars “computer” is not one system but a large number of small subsystems connected together by a network. Modern vehicles have up to 75+ ECUs.

Electronic Stability Control (ESC) – Improves vehicle safety by preventing loss of control.   .Typical ECUs  Engine Control Module (ECM) – Determine parameters for an Internal combustion engine. Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) – Improves safety by preventing the brakes from locking.

ELECTRONIC CONTROL MODULE  Controls the parameters of an internal combustion engine. Current designs are able to compute many parameters on-the-fly but there is still a few look up tables. feeds data back into the car to make decisions Embedded System. − . −   Early systems entirely look-up table based. Has developed into a closed-loop system. resources are limited.

ECM RUNNING MODES  Open-loop : This is when the ECM is not using input data from sensors. . e. Some use data from short period of time like a single trip while others keep track of data for months. − This change was implemented as the microprocessors got faster.: when the engine is cold.  Closed-loop: This uses post-combustion data to compute changes for pre-combustion parameters. − This occurs in certain circumstances where using input data would not be beneficial. or wide open throttle.g.



Interconnections in the Vehicle .

Using ECUs as Diagnostic tool  On Board Diagnostics or OBD-II – standard diagnostic testing. Diagnostic Problem – An error occurs but where is really? Logging takes place in “trips” . Malfunction Indicator Light : If something goes wrong with the car. Major functions of a car are controlled and monitored by computers on their own networks. the computer will know and record a fault code long before a light comes on the dashboard alerting that something is wrong.     .

   . As a result.I  In the 1980s the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) came up with OBD(On Board Diagnostics). OBD is handled by the ISO (International Organization for Standardization). It is a set of diagnostics data variables and also with a relatively standard connector plug. make sure failures could be discovered and fixed quickly via good diagnostics. every car can accommodate the same DLC (Data Link Connector) and generates the same generic DTC (Diagnostic Trouble Code).OBD. Internationally. It’s mission was to reduce emissions.


OBD II  OBD-II is an expanded set with more standardization both in connectors and fault codes. every car sold in the US became required to have a computer that can generate the OBD-II codes and a standard OBD-II connector. and was adopted by CARB in 1989 and later by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency).  . Starting with 1996.

is able to recreate every aspect of a trip-speed. read the codes. e. up to several hundred hours' worth. via software. .: It collect all generated data. • It could easily determine speeding violations. • Fact: OBD-III is already being developed. • Provide important clues to what happened right before an accident.g.: The Davis Car-Chip.OBD-II Scanners • Task: To interface with one or more data communication network interfaces. • Data loggers. breaking and acceleration and much more. and it will have more sensor s and faster interfaces. distance. and it also may contain transponders that could allow automatic vehicle locating and monitoring. and convert for PC's serial port can read.


User Segment . • GPS units consist of 1. Space Segment 2. Control Segment 3.GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM(GPS) • Is satellite based system consists of GPS units.

. A monitor in the car shows the relevant portion of the map.Four satellites pinpoints the precise position of the receiver on the earth. The driver can enter the target location. and the computer will calculate the optimal route and display it instantly. A fourth satellite is used to confirm the target location. Information from the first three satellites narrows down the range of possible locations to two points.

. • Provides common internet benefits while on the road like sending and receiving e-mails. tripplanning and navigation etc. social networking.IN CAR INTERNET • Refers to internet services provided in the car.

Wireless ROUTER • Through an Aircard od Modem • It has internal battery that helps eliminate the router from rebooting as car starts and stops. . • It is small enough to fit above or on the sun visors. • Multiple devices can get connected to it.

. • The driver controls the speed of the car via the gas and brake pedals the manoeuvring of the car into the parking space is done by the car itself.SELF PARKING • Computer-controlled sensors find open parking spaces based on their estimation of the proximity of other vehicles. • Once an open space is detected. it directs the vehicle's steering wheel to parallel park the car.

a flag symbol representing the corner of the parking spot. They move forward until the vehicle's rear bumper passes the rear wheel of the car parked in front of the open space. and adjustment arrows) . • The driver's selection of the parallel park guidance button on the navigation/camera touchscreen causes a grid to appear (with green or red lines.How does it work? • Drivers first pull up alongside the parking space.

the box will be green in colour if the box is incorrectly placed. the car will then begin to back up and steer itself into the parking space . When the driver slowly releases the brake.• The driver is responsible for checking to see if the representative box on the screen correctly identifies the parking space • If the space is large enough to park. • Once the parking space is correctly identified. while keeping the foot on the brake pedal. while keeping the foot on the brake pedal. the driver presses OK and take his/her hands off the steering wheel. using the arrow buttons moves the box until it turns green. or lined in red.

Intelligent Parking Assist System • Launched in 2003 • First automatic parking system was developed by Toyota Motor Corporation in 2004. .or reverse-parking steering angles. The vehicle's computer calculates the best parallel. • Offering both parallel and back-in parking.

. allowing the backup camera to 'see' the parking area. and the car's rear view appears on dash navigation/camera display. moving forward and turning. • The driver approaches the parking space. The vehicle rear has to be facing the reverse parking spot.How does it works? • Reverse parking automatically activates the backup camera system. positioning the car in place for backing into the reverse parking spot.

and the driver selects the reverse park guidance button on the navigation/camera touchscreen (the grid appears with green or red lines. . reverse parking adds rotation selection). and adjustment arrows.• Reverse automatically activates the backup camera system. the same exact parking process occurs as the car reverse parks into the spot. a flag symbol representing the corner of the parking spot.After checking the parking space and engaging the reverse park procedure.


.NIGHT VISION • Helps in increasing driver’s perception on the road. • Effective in darkness and poor weather.


• Lowers the risk of accidently hitting children or small animal wandering into the path of the vehicle. . • Powered by car battery.REAR VIEW CAMERA • Acts as a video camera. • Provide an aid in backing up.


.Run-flat tyres • Run-flat tyres keep you mobile even if all tyre pressure is lost. you can continue driving for up to 150 km at a speed of up to 80 km/h without any significant loss in vehicle stability. • With run-flat tyres fitted.

• Drivers use it to avoid unconsciously violating speed limits. • Adjusts car’s speed to maintain a safe following distance.HANDS OFF DOZE CONTROL • Also known as ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control). • Useful for long drives across highways. .


• It apply additional brake pressure to help shorten the stopping distance.Collision Mitigation System • It recognizes when the driver makes a panic stop . although BMW. • It is often called brake assist. . • It is different from an antilock braking system or electronic brake force distribution. refers to it as Dynamic Brake Control. • It may also work in conjunction with the smart cruise control or stability control system if it senses a potential collision. for example.


• Finally.AIRBAG SYSTEM • First. there is the inflation system. Air bags are actually inflated by the equivalent of a solid rocket booster. which is made of thin. . • Then there is the sensor that tells the bag to inflate. there is the bag itself. nylon fabric and folded into the steering wheel or the dash board.


while Volvo's is called Roll-Over Protection System. Ford named it Roll Stability Control. • DaimlerChrysler calls it Electronic Roll Mitigation. But they all have the same goal. . • Range Rover's is Active Roll Mitigation. it applies the brakes and modulate throttle as needed to maintain control. and GM's is Proactive Roll Avoidance.ROLLOVER PROTECTION SYSTEM • If the system senses a potential rollover.


under existing circumstances. cause the seat or steering wheel to vibrate. it may flash a light in your mirror. or sound an alarm . • If it detects something in the way.BLIND-SPOT DETECTION • Also known as Side assist or collision warning. • A blind spot in a vehicle is an area around the car that cannot be directly observed by the driver while at the controls.

such as bicycles.• Blind spots exist in a wide range of vehicles: cars. motorboats and aircraft • Other types of transport have no blind spots at all. . trucks. motorcycle and horses.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE • There are a variety of ways vehicles now and in the future will handle an emergency situation 1.Volkswagen's also switches on the hazards and disconnects the battery terminal from the alternator. 2. GM's OnStar and BMW Assist both alert their respective response centers of the accident and make crash details available to emergency personnel . DaimlerChrysler's Enhanced Accident Response System (EARS): Turns on interior lighting. unlocks doors and shuts off fuel when airbags deploy. 3.


• Google's self-driven cars will soon be appearing on Nevada roads after the state's Department of Motor Vehicles approved the nation's first autonomous vehicle license. . and they're probably closer to being a reality than you might think.SELF DRIVEN CARS • It means a car that can drive itself.

How does it work ? .

south of Tokyo. REUTERS/Kim Kyung-Hoon. . • A model holds a smartphone as she poses with Nissan's new concept car PIVO3 at its unveiling ceremony for journalists at its technical center in Atsugi.CAR CONTROLLED BY SMARTPHONES • Nissan's 8th EV concept car PIVO3 can be controlled and communicated with smartphones.

.On the similar lines…… • General Motors Electric Networked Vehicle (EN-V) concept represents a vision of the future of urban personal mobility which includes – 1. A feature that would allow the vehicle to park itself 2.Automatically return to the user when summoned from a smartphone application.

• Transmit car’s location and recognize other car surrounded. • Alerts car about to blow through a red light. • Tells when a vehicle several cars ahead has stopped short .CAR-CAR COMMUNICATION • Uses advanced Wi-Fi Technology. • The system will gives warning of an oncoming car while passing a vehicle on a country road.

.AUGMENTED REALITY DASHBOARD • Near future cars will be able to identify external objects in front of the driver • Display information about them on the windshield. • Also developing augmented reality dashboards. • BMW has already implemented a windshield display in some of their cars which displays basic information.

. X-Hawk. • Kitty Hawk and Daimler were just the beginnings. PAL-V One. • Some of them are the Switchblade. Terrafugia Transition taking online orders for its flying car which will be flying in the sky very soon.FLYING CARS • In near terms future cars will be flying. LaBiche FSC-1. Moller Skycar and the Milner AirCar.

And Technology will always continue to surprise us…!! .