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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

•Review of literature is one of the most important steps in the research process. •An account of what is already known about particular phenomenon. •To convey to the readers about the work already done. •The knowledge and ideas that have been already established on a particular topic. •An account of the previous efforts and the achievements of scholar. •It is a laborious task - To be successful. •Knowledge gained from earlier studies is an integral part of research.

what questions are being asked . Cooper. The primary reports used in the literature may be empirical. summarize. 1988) • A literature review is an evaluative report of information found in the literature related to selected area of studies. critical or analytic or. it is not in itself primary research. evaluates. what are the prevailing theories and hypothesis . evaluate.MEANING OF LITERATURE REVIEW • A literature review is a description and analysis of literature relevant to a particular field or topic. summarizes . and clarifies this literature. theoretical. and what methods and methodologies are appropriate and useful. Second a literature review seeks to describe . methodological in nature. M. As such . The review describes . ( H. rather. clarify and or integrate the content of primary reports. • A literature review uses as its data base reports of primary or original scholarship and does not report new primary scholarship itself. who the key writers are.(Queensland University. It gives an overview of what has been said . its gives a theoretical base for the research and helps to determine the nature of research. it reports on findings of others. 1999) .

( S. in depth . Even e descriptive review . should not just list and paraphrase. unpublished printed or audio visual materials and personal communications.K. . however. so that key themes can emerge.( ANA 2000)A literature review is an account of what has been already established or published on a particular research topic by accredited scholars and researchers. (University of Toronto 2001) • Literature review is defined as a broad comprehensive . but should also add comment and bring out themes and trends. systematic and critical review of scholarly publication.Sharma.• A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of knowledge on a particular topic of research. 2005) • Literature review also evaluates and shows relationships between different materials.

Readers get a comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field. Literature reviews also provide a solid background for a research study. . They are useful reports for professionals to keep up to date.IMPORTANCE OF LITERATURE REVIEW • • • • Literature reviews provide a handy guide to particular topic.

Identification of relevant theoretical or conceptual framework for research problems Identification or development of new or refined clinical interventions to test through empirical research. Identification of suitable design and data collection methods for a research study. or problems. It also helps in the development of research instruments. Description of the strength and weakness of the research. Development of hypothesis to be tested in a research study. concepts. Orientation to what is known and not known about an area of inquiry. Helps in planning the methodology of the present research study.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • OBJECTIVES OF LITERATURE REVIEW Identification of research problem and development of research questions. Assistance in interpreting study findings and in developing implications and recommendations. Determination of any gaps or inconsistencies in a body of knowledge’ Discovery of unanswered questions about subjects. Generation of useful research questions. Determination of a need to replicate a prior study in different study settings or different samples or sizes or different study populations. .

• Identify data sources that other research have used. .PURPOSES OF LITERATURE REVIEW • Understanding of subject under review. • Identify new ways to interpret and shed light on any gaps in previous research. • Identify potential relationships between concepts and to identify researchable hypothesis. • Point away forward for further research. • Discover how a research project is related to work of others. • Develop alternative research projects. • Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. • Describe the relationship of each study to other research studies under consideration. • See what has and has not been investigated. • Place one’s original work in context of the existing literature. • Develop general explanation for observed variations in a behavior or phenomenon. • Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. • Learn how others have defined and measured key concepts.

• Description of studies written by researchers who conducted them. • Most primary sources are found in published literature. for example.SOURCES OF LITERATURE REVIEW Literature can be reviewed from two main sources. • An investigation written by the person who conducted it. a) Primary Sources • Research reports. b) Secondary Sources • Description of studies prepared by some one other than the original researcher. a nursing research article. • They are written by people other than the individuals who developed the theory or conducted the research. • primary source is written by a person who developed the theory or conducted the research. . • The secondary sources may be used when primary sources are not available.

Lycos. Yahoo. Google. MSN search. Web Crawler.The main sources of literature are as follows • • • • Computer assisted literature search. General literature search through search engines. Electronic literature search through web. Alta Vista… .

pamphlets and leaflets .The useful other sources are • • • • • • • • • • • • Journals Books Conference proceeding Government or corporate reports Newspapers Thesis and dissertations Internet CD-ROM Magazines Guide to library Research reports News letters.

STEPS OF LITERATURE REVIEW Literature review is a systematic search for information. which follows the following steps: • Search for sources • Locate the source • Review the selected literature • Synthesize findings from relevant studies • Organize the reviewed literature • Write the literature review Synthesize findings from relevant studies Search for resources Locate the source Review the selected literature Organize the reviewed literature Write the literature review .

issue. • Sequence in arranging.PREPARING WRITTEN LITERATURE There are three elements of written literature: introduction. evidence. and conclusion Writing the Introduction While writing the introduction. . following steps should be taken care of: • Define or identify the general topic. methodology. • providing appropriate context. • Establish the writer’s point of view for reviewing literature. • Analyze and compare the literature. and conclusion. body. conflicts in theory. • Point out overall trends. • Organization of review. • Gaps in research and scholarship. • Identify the area of concern.

• Conclusions of authors. • Make sure to compare and analyze. • Specific purposes or objectives. • Chronology in the write-up.Writing the body Following measures need to be undertaken while writing the body of the literature. • Qualitative versus quantitative approaches. . • Be brief and summarize. • Summarize individual studies • Compare the importance in the literature.

• Conclude by providing some insight into the relationship between central topic of the literature review. • Maintaining the focus established in the introduction. • Evaluate the current “state of the art” for the body of knowledge reviewed.Writing the Conclusion The points to be taken care of in the conclusion are as follows: • Summarize major contributions of significant studies. • pointing out major methodological flaws or gaps. . • Finding the areas or issues pertinent to future study.

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR WRITING THE REVIEW OF LITERATURE • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Document the current knowledge Indicate the findings that are ready for use in practice A detailed outline should be developed Begins with an introduction Critically evaluate each contribution and include relevant studies Avoid technical terms Avoid abbreviation Use simple sentences Avoid common errors of punctuations and grammar Link your ideas in to a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities Get feed back on your article from colleagues Maintain academic respectability Avoid anonymous material and self opinions Conclude with a summary of current knowledge .

. • It puts the present study into the context of what is known about the topic. • It provides theoretical and conceptual basis of the study.ADVANTAGES OF LITERATURE REVIEW The literature review has the following advantages • It provides rationale for the current study. • Review of relevant literature.

It is a concise description of an article that highlights the relationship between different work and how it is related to the researcher’s own work. . which is significant to the researcher to carry-out the project.CONCLUSION The literature review provides a critical look at the existing literature.

. Review follows a systematic process of searching and locating the sources. synthesizing and organizing the reviewed literature and writing the review. reviewing the relevant literature.SUMMARY Review of literature is the critical appraisal of selected literature to find out how it can be useful to the present study. Literature review is essential as it provides rationale for the current study. puts the present study into the context of what is known about the topic and provides theoretical and conceptual basis for the study. It brings clarity and focus to the research problem.