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Digvijay Singh M.Tech Ist semester Thermal engineering Roll no: 11TH03F NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KARNATAKA
Cryogenics is a system that is operated at a temperature of 213 K or below. A cryogenic experiment or system is normally dominated by the need to get something cold and keep it cold, with other elements of the design subservient to that. Generally, the need to operate at cryogenic temperatures makes even an otherwise simple experiment complicated, and the colder you need to go, the harder life generally gets. Every cryogenic experiment needs some way of reaching low temperatures.
Low temperatures may be maintained within a cryostat by using various refrigeration methods.What is a cryostat? A cryostat (from cryo meaning cold and stat meaning stationary) is a device used to maintain cold cryogenic temperatures. Cryostats have numerous applications within science. most commonly using cryogenic fluid bath such as liquid helium. similar in construction to a vacuum flask or Dewar. Hence it is usually assembled into a vessel. and medicine . engineering.
Pumped helium-4 systems 2. Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators 1. Gifford McMohan coolers b. Pulse tube coolers Methods of cooling below 4K 1.PROVIDING A CRYOGENIC ENVIRONMENT Methods of cooling upto 4K Liquid cryogens Cooling with mechanical refrigerators a. . Dilution refrigerators 4. Pumped helium-3 systems 3. 2.
which is cooled and recycled. Closed-cycle cryostats consume a relatively large amount of electrical power. but need not be refilled with helium and can run continuously for an indefinite period. Objects may be cooled by attaching them to a metallic cold plate inside a vacuum chamber which is in thermal contact with the helium vapour chamber.Closed cycle cryostat Closed-cycle cryostats consist of a chamber through which cold helium vapour is pumped. .Types of cryostats 1. An external mechanical refrigerator extracts the warmer helium exhaust vapour.
As the liquid helium boils within the cryostat. Some laboratories have facilities to capture and recover the helium as it escapes from the cryostat. .2. No electrical power is required by continuous-flow cryostats. it is continuously replenished by a steady flow of liquid helium from the storage dewar. Continuous-flow cryostats Continuous-flow cryostats are cooled by liquid helium from a storage dewar. The length of time over which cooling may be maintained is dictated by the volume of the storage dewar. although these facilities are also costly to operate. but large quantities of expensive liquid helium are consumed during operation.
In the older designs there may be additional liquid nitrogen bath. with gradually increasing temperatures. depending on the volume and construction of the cryostat. A coldplate is placed in thermal contact with the liquid helium bath. The liquid helium may be replenished as it boils away.3. the invention of super insulator materials has obsoleted this technology. or several concentric layers of shielding. Bath cryostats Bath cryostats are similar in construction to vacuum flasks filled with liquid helium. The helium vapour which boils away from the bath very effectively cools thermal shields around the outside of the bath. The boil-off rate is minimised by shielding the bath with either cold helium vapour. or vacuum shield with walls constructed from so-called super insulator material. at intervals between a few hours and several months. . However.
Temperatures below that can be reached using magnetic refrigeration.4. . Temperatures down to 1mK can be reached by employing dilution refrigerator or dry dilution refrigerator typically in addition to the main stage and 1K pot. which is a container of He-4 isotope which is connected to vacuum pump. Temperatures down to 1K can be reached by attaching the coldplate to 1-K pot. Multistage cryostats In order to achieve temperature lower than liquid helium additional cooler stages may be added to the cryostat.
Items to be considered in cryostat design Mechanical item Cryogenic item Magnetic shield Safety code .
Points to consider: Impact on alignment Development of interferences or gaps due to dissimilar materials Increased strain and possible failure Impact on wiring Most contraction occurs above 77 K Leak tightness .Mechanical item Support structure Alignment method Thermal contraction Heat capacity Large amounts of contraction can occur when materials are cooled to cryogenic temperatures.
THERMAL CONTRACTION Large amounts of contraction can occur when materials are cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Points to consider: Impact on alignment Development of interferences or gaps due to dissimilar materials Increased strain and possible failure Impact on wiring Most contraction occurs above 77 K α goes to 0 at 0 slope as T approaches 0 K α is T independent at higher temperatures For practical work the integral thermal contraction is more useful. .
at cryogenic temperatures. small heat leaks may cause large temperature rises . C decreases rapidly with decreasing temperature. This has 2 important effects: Systems cool down faster as they get colder At cryogenic temperatures.Heat capacity C = dU/dT or Q/mΔT In general.
g. 1100 Copper e. 316.g.g. 304L.Material selection Suitable materials include Austenitic stainless steels e. 6061. ETP and phosphorous deoxidized Brass Fiber reinforced plastics such as G –10 and G –11 Niobium & Titanium (frequently used in superconducting RF systems) Invar (Ni /Fe alloy) useful in making washers due to its lower coefficient of expansion Indium (used as an O ring material) Kapton and Mylar (used in Multilayer Insulation and as electrical insulation Quartz (used in windows) . OFHC. 6063. 304. 321 Aluminum alloys e.
.Unsuitable materials include Martensitic stainless steels Undergoes ductile to brittle transition when cooled down. Cast Iron – also becomes brittle Carbon steels – also becomes brittle. Sometimes used in 300 K vacuum vessels but care must be taken that breaks in cryogenic lines do not cause the vacuum vessels to cool down and fail. Rubber. Teflon and most plastics although plastic insulated wires are frequently OK as long as the wire is not repeatedly flexed which could lead to cracking of the insulation.
install redundant sensors whenever feasible Be sure to consider how to recalibrate sensors Once R&D is done. minimize number of sensors in series production of cryostats .Cryogenic Item Pipe size : flow rate. mount sensors outside cryostat(e. pressure Heat load conduction convection radiation Instrumentation Don’t use more accuracy & precision than required Use commercially produced sensors whenever possible When possible. pressure transducers.g. flow meters) For critical devices inside of cryostats.
g.Minimizing conduction heat loss Using lower conductivity materials for supports e. G-10 Increasing length and decreasing cross sectional area of connections between room temperature & cryogenic temperatures Reducing as much as possible amount of instrumentation wiring Using heat intercepts at intermediate temperatures (less heat leak to coldest temperatures) .
Minimizing convection heat loss Standard Dewar design 10-6 torr or better is best for isolation vacuum Vacuum pressure is frequently much better than due to cryopumping of cold surface .
Minimizing radiation heat loss A major source of cryostat heat leak One way to reduce heat leak is to select low emissivity materials Be careful of oxidation & the impact of real vs. ideal materials Use Multilayer Insulation (MLI) or “superinsulation” inside the vacuum space to reduce heat leak .
Check knife guard is in position and cryostat hand wheel is in the locked position before positioning sample. if necessary * face protection. . if necessary Routinely inspect to ensure integrity of components. INFECTION BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE (Aerosols) CHEMICAL EXPOSURE (Disinfectants) FROSTBITE Wear personal protective equipment: * gloves * lab coat * eye protection.SAFETY WITH CRYOSTAT POTENTIAL HAZARDS CUTS.
to prevent exposure to aerosols. Dispose of blades in sharps container . If histofreeze is used. leave overnight. use a tissue. Ensure distractions will be at a minimum. Prolonged contact of bare skin to frozen surfaces of the instrument or to frozen accessories can cause frostbite. wiping AWAY from the knife edge. If cutting infectious material. CLEAN UP Tissue and shavings must be disposed of correctly. When cleaning knife. disinfect after cleaning with a commercial disinfectant such as Leica Cryofect or wipe all surfaces with absolute ethanol and then place an opened container of 10% Formalin in the cryostat. the cryostat cover should only be opened the minimum required.
Tips of succesful cryostat design Define requirements first Design in safety from the start Use appropriate materials for cryogenic temperatures Review literature & learn from previous efforts Use tested commercial solutions whenever possible Avoid feedthroughs & demountable seals at cryogenic temperatures Conduct prototype tests when required .
A burst disk. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Research magnet types Cryostats used in MRI machines are designed to hold a cryogen. If. to maintain cryogenic conditions and to conserve helium. The liquid helium bath is designed to keep the superconducting magnet's bobbin of superconductive wire in its superconductive state. the wire becomes resistive. the gaseous helium can be safely vented out of the MRI suite. for any reason.APPLICATIONS 1. instantly raising pressure within the vessel. i. a condition known as a "quench". loses superconductivity. is placed within the chimney or vent pipe so that during a pressure excursion. typically helium. In this state the wire has no electrical resistance and very large currents are maintained with a low power input. the liquid helium evaporates. To maintain superconductivity. usually made of carbon. .e. Modern MRI cryostats use a mechanical refrigerator (cryocooler) to re-condense the helium gas and return it to the bath. in a liquid state with minimal evaporation (boil-off). the bobbin must be kept below its transition temperature by being immersed in the liquid helium.
placed in a freezer. or by a refrigerant like liquid nitrogen. They are usually used in a process called frozen section histology (see Frozen section procedure). The cryostat is usually a stationary upright freezer. Small portable cryostats are available and can run off generators or vehicle inverters.usually from minus 20 to minus 30 degree Celsius. Biological microtome Cryostat are used in medicine to cut histological slides. The temperature can be varied. The cryostat is essentially an ultrafine "deli-slicer".2. called a microtome. with an external wheel for rotating the microtome. depending on the tissue being cut . The freezer is either powered by electricity. .
. variable acceleration . Cryostats for outer space research Outer space flight conditions (weightlessness .) prohibit the use of ordinary cryostats. 3.2. 1. such devices are called phase seperators.Setting the regulator to maintain the pressure automatically above the liquid cryoagent accompanied by vapour cryoagent exhaust into outer space.Sufficient strength to endure all overloads and vibration.Mounting a device to hinder liquid cryoagent ejection from the working volume to the outlet mouth of cryostat under condition of weightlessness and variable acceleration. high dynamic load etc. Making an outlet mouth design so as to eliminate heat supply to the liquid cryogent due to vapour convection. 4. 2. cryostats designed for space-craft has special features.
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