You are on page 1of 26

1

All professional disciplines are based on a unique body of knowledge that is expressed through conceptual models and theories that guide practice. The hallmark of professional nursing is theory based nursing. Community oriented nursing practice blends nursing and public health theory into a population-focused practice to promote and preserve the health of communities.

Theory is a set of interrelated concepts or hypothesis that seeks to explain or predict phenomena. Model is a description or analogy used as a pattern to enhance our understanding of something that is known.

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Community oriented, population focused

Community orientation is a process that is actively shaped by the unique experiences, knowledge, concerns, values, beliefs, and culture of a given community Population focus implies that a nurse uses population-based skills such as epidemiology, research in community assessment, and community organizing as the basis for interventions

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Nightingales Theory of Environment Orems Self Care Model Neumans Health Care Systems Model Rogers Model Of The Science Of Unitary Man Parsers Human Becoming Theory Penders Health Promotion Model Roys Adaptation Model

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Milios Framework For Prevention Salmon Whites Construct For Public Health Nursing Minnesota Wheel The Public Health Interventions Model Omaha System Model Block and Jostens Ethical Theory Of Population Focused Nursing Canadian Model For Community

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Focused on preventive care for populations Nightingale used observations to validate her hypothesis
Poor environmental conditions are bad for health Good environmental conditions reduce disease

Others have added social services and health care in addition to environment

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Communities can be considered to have a collective set of self-care actions and requirements that affect the well-being of the total group Self-care deficit: demand exceeds client abilities related to

Universal requirements Developmental requirements Health deviation requirements

Nursing care supports client


2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 9

MZC

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

10

Based on systems theory Whole is greater than the sum of the parts Three principles:
1. 2. 3.

Life proceeds in one direction along a rhythmic spiral Energy fields follow a certain wave pattern and organization Human and environmental energy fields interact simultaneously and mutually, leading to completeness and unity

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

11

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

12

Originally Man-living-health theory Three themes:


1. 2.

3.

Meaning Rythmicity Transcendence

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

13

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

14

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

15

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

16

Premise: Behavioral patterns of populations are a result of habitual patterns and limited choices Challenged lack of knowledge concept Proposed that government and institutional choices set the range of options for aggregate and individual choices

MZC

17

Categories of nursing interventions

Education directed toward voluntary change in the attitudes and behavior of the subjects Engineering directed at managing risk-related variables Enforcement directed at mandatory regulation to achieve better health

Interventions target determinants in four categories:

human/biologic, environmental, medical/technologic/organizational, and social


18

MZC

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

19

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

20

Three essential elements of population focused nursing An obligation to population The primacy of prevention Centrality of relationship - based care. The first two are from public health and the third element from nursing.

MZC

21

Basis for the Canadian Community Health Nursing Practice Model

The values and beliefs of Community Health Nurses The community health nursing process
22

MZC

MZC

23

1.

2. 3.

4.
5. 6. 7. 8.
MZC

Use a comprehensive and systematic process Work in partnership with the people Focus on primary prevention Promote a healthful environment Target all who might benefit Give priority to community needs Promote optimum allocation of resources Collaborate with others in the community
24

Communication technology Genetic engineering Global economy Migration Terrorism and bioterrorism Climate changes

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

25

MZC

2005 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

26