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Independent Consultant-Public Policy www.sanoconsultants.co.uk August 18,2013
Introduction Horticulture Sector-Profile SWOT Analysis Issues and Challenges Recommendations Conclusions
Despite its significance in agricultural growth, commercial activities and poverty alleviation the horticulture sector has not received the attention it deserves. As a result, horticulture has not developed to its full potential Its slow development reflects a weak policy and regulatory framework, production and productivity problems, post harvest losses, marketing problems and limited capital investment. These problems contributed to low quality standards, minimal export of horticulture products, low rates of return on investment that consequently fail to attract new investment.
This presentation explains the ground realities about horticultural sector of Pakistan and suggests a strategy to develop this sector to its full potential
Despite its relative decline in formal economy in percentage terms, agriculture is still dominant sector in overall economic structure Pakistan’s survival and growth are directly dependent on its agriculture due to its socio-political interconnectedness and its economic and financial linkages-backward and forward
Its performance still dictates all our macro indicators GDP, Poverty, External Balance, Inflation etc
Out of total area of Pakistan, approximately 80 million hectares about 58 million hectares have been surveyed The area under cultivation is 22 million hectares (38%) out of which nearly 19 million hectares is irrigated; the rest is rain fed The area under forest is 4 million hectares (7%) and the balance surveyed area 8 million hectares can be classified as the cultivable waste
Coupled with suitable climate and availability of fairly good water resources, agriculture has been the major activity for centuries in this part of the world
Agriculture sector of Pakistan comprises four sectors - livestock, crop, forest and fisheries
Livestock contributes 56% of the total agriculture production, crop sector adds 38% while fisheries and forestry contributes 2% each
Out of crops sector ,horticulture occupies fairly significant position in terms of area, production, share in GDP and employment.
A viable and profitable horticulture sector can provide a sustainable livelihood to the rural agriculture community .However small land holding precludes the possibility of horticultural cultivation on commercial lines
Pakistan has a great potential for horticulture due to variety in land and climate which provide opportunities for the production of a wide range of horticulture crops. A large number of indigenous fruits, vegetables and floriculture commodities are produced in the country while there is scope for cultivation of exotic crops. In some fruits and vegetables, Pakistan occupies prominent world position in terms of production i.e. apricots(6th),date palm(5th), Onion(7th),mandarin (6th),mango (4th) etc With more than 435,000 hectares under vegetables, Pakistan ranks 17th in the world while in production it ranks 20th with a total production of around 5,500,1000 tons
With an area around 200,000 hectares under production, Pakistan produces 2.15 million tons per annum( 95% of world’s Kinnows) out of which around 370,000 tons worth Rs.10 billion is exported. Apples are grown on 111,600 hectares and getting annual production of 366,000 tons out of which ----million tons worth --- are exported Peaches are mostly grown over an area under 15,000 hectares and production is 54,000 tons.
Mango, the second important fruit crop, is grown on173,700 hectares and production is around 2 million tons. It produces approximately 6% of the world’s total production and is currently the third largest producer.
Grapes, a low water consuming crop, is planted over 16,000 hectares and increasing owing to rise in demand. Production of grapes ranges from 65,000 to 70,000 tons. Guava is widely grown in Pakistan with production of about 500,000 tons over an area of 62,000 hectares. Produced in all the four provinces, the area under cultivation of dates is 90,000 hectares with production of 531,000 tons. Other fruits like banana, persimmon, pomegranates, cherries and plums are also grown
Onions, grown in all the four provinces is cultivated on an area of 125,000 hectares and production is 1.70 million tons Garlic is the second most widely used cultivated alliums after onion. It is grown in all the four provinces of Pakistan over an area of 6,800 hectares producing 57,000 tons Potato, fourth most important crop in terms of volume, is cultivated on an area of 140,000 hectares with production of 3 million tons Chillies are grown on 75,000 hectares with a production of 188,000 tons
Huge area available for horticultural plantation Climate suitable for Indigenous and exotic fruits and vegetables Possibilities of fruit/crop inter-cropping Year round availability of fruits/vegetables due to geographical spread
Increased awareness about tunnel farming/drip irrigation and its widespread adoption
Low production, often geographically dispersed production-less area/low yields Side business to crops/livestock-less attention Bad horticultural practices -huge production losses
Low technological base-less production/productivity
Poor marketing leading to lower profitability
Inadequate value addition-less profitability
Unsatisfactory processing-post production losses
Global corporate interest in food products
Growing population-domestic and world which expands the market
Growing prosperity-local ,regional and global which increases demand for luxuries Improved transportation network saving time Regional integration reducing costs of doing business New technologies resulting in efficiency gains and time/costs reduction
Climate change and environmental degradation Sudden death syndrome diseases affecting certain food trees, post harvest fungal disease
Increasingly strict food safety standards in developed and even in middle income countries
Renewed interest in bio-fuel production adversely affecting food security and horticulture
How to meet the increasing demand of high quality horticultural products by increasing its production on sustainable basis without adversely affecting the production of food/cash crops or habitat for livestock in the face of looming threat of climate change and environmental degradation
We need to formulate a comprehensive horticultural policy which should indicate the broad direction, create institutions and define their respective roles, make rules for coordination, set safety standards and provide an incentive and rewards system for various stake holders Within this framework the Government’s role should be confined to policy formulation, regulation, capacity building and facilitation, while the private sector will take the lead in investment and value chain development, on its own or on public-private partnership basis
Within the national policy settings, horticulture will be developed with the following five broad objectives;
Increase productivity by increasing efficiency in all horticultural operations through public as well as private sector investment in R&D and Extension Increase profitability by rationalizing input and output prices, reducing production and post production losses and developing efficient marketing infrastructure Make horticultural produce competitive in the rapidly globalizing world by reducing cost of production, improving quality and ensuring Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) compliance
Ensure sustainability by promoting environment friendly good horticultural practices through incentives and rewards, awareness campaigns and promulgation of appropriate legal framework
Ensure equitable distribution of gains from enhanced productivity by making available public sector goods and services to all stakeholders without distinction
Accelerating the national economic growth by increasing the rate
of growth of this important subsector of the economy
Reducing unemployment by creating jobs in horticulture sector
Increasing Pakistan's foreign exchange earnings by increasing
quantity, quality and variety of horticultural exports
Ensuring food security and nutritional balance of the people’s food
intake by providing them vitamin rich horticultural products them a labour intensive, low capital intensive investment opportunities to own resources
Helping the state in its poverty alleviation efforts by providing
Improving the condition and status of women by providing them
Horizontal expansion - increasing the area under horticultural products Vertical expansion - increasing the yield of the horticultural products Structural transformation - diversification and value addition
Cross Cutting Interventions - rural reforms
1.Bringing new areas under horticultural cultivation
2.Reclaiming degraded lands
There is a vast scope of horizontal expansion in respect of horticultural products due to their agronomic qualities New techniques of tunnel farming and drip irrigation has revolutionized this sector Increased productivity in crop sector can release additional lands for horticulture
Even marginal/mountain lands, not fit for profitable cultivation of cash/food crops can be brought under fruit/vegetables
Degraded lands, not fit for profitable cultivation of cash/food crops can be brought under horticultural production with the help of technology, chemicals and water New techniques and technology of saving water has made it possible to use these land for horticultural production on profitable basis
Encourage eco-friendly inter-cropping practices as it increases the area under cultivation by cultivating vegetables in between the rows. Similarly farmers can plant crops in orchards to increase their profitability Agro-forestry is another profitable option for the farmers and the country
However farmers must be given proper technical support for this practice to be cost effective and eco friendly
Increased urbanisation is devouring fertile lands for construction of spacious houses and infrastructure Besides formulating appropriate land use policy, government should encourage urban and peri-urban farming by utilizing the vacant areas and promoting kitchen gardening Modern techniques and technology have made it technically feasible and financially cost effective to go for this form of micro farming
Proper guidance, availability of urban farming infrastructure and timely technical support can provide incentives for urbanites to become part time farmers
1.Agricultural Education and Research 2.Skill Formation 3.Farm Mechanization 4.Inputs ◦ Seeds ◦ Chemicals ◦ Water ◦ Credit
Our agricultural Research& Development and Extension suffer from many structural, and management weaknesses-low funding, weak coordination and linkages among research, education and extension, inadequate technical and professional capacities of the agricultural research institutions, infrastructure etc Government should promote demand driven quality based R&D and extension services by encouraging publicprivate partnerships that are linked to horticulture value chains Research and development programs must focus on finding solutions in terms of increasing productivity, broaden harvesting time of crops and increase farmers’ profitability.
New varieties should be introduced. Seedless varieties of some new horticultural crops such as persimmon, cherries, strawberry, lychee and others have already been introduced and established as commercial crops. Potential new crops should be identified; especially high value horticultural crops suitable for local climatic conditions. Biotechnology as a tool for rapid multiplication of quality planting material, virus cleaning, genetic transformation, have significant potential but requires capacity building and safeguard procedures to be developed.
Skill development through in-service training at different R&D institutions can enhance capabilities of extension staff. Postgraduate programs in fruits, vegetables, floriculture, medicinal and spices crops and post harvest management should help providing skilled human resource for the horticulture industry. Such programs should be initiated in agriculture universities and research institutes in all provinces. Skilled labor should be attracted and retained through competitive minimum wages for the agricultural labor and the development of industry vocational training programs
Intensification and diversification of farm mechanization by ensuring easy access of the farmers to essential horticultural machinery Its efficient and optimal use by incentivizing the private sector for opening machinery leasing/hiring outlets in villages Federal Government should exempt the duties and surcharge on import of horticulture machinery like grading units, cold storage chambers, greenhouses and trickle irrigation accessories such as micro-tubes, mini sprinkler and bubblers for interested businessmen Expansion and modernization of local machinery manufacturing by providing them training, incentives and technical/financial support to produce horticultural implements as per international standards
Limited availability of true to type root stock is the biggest handicap in establishing state of art fruit and vegetables nurseries in the country State should promote the establishment of such nurseries by providing appropriate legislative cover, financial support and technical guidance All nurseries must work according to the approved nursery protocol, developed in consultation with technical experts and stakeholders Only registered nurseries should be eligible for support and facilities offered by the government
There are various estimates of production losses due to non-use of appropriate chemicals by the farmers Ignorance, fear and costs of using are the general reasons for this neglect
There is need to create awareness among the farmers for judicious use of chemicals for reducing the production losses There are eco friendly measures to reduce this loss for those who are excessively conscious of use of chemical inputs
Water was already scarce but its scarcity is becoming acute due to its increased demand, misuse, wastage and climate change. There is thus need to rationalize its use even for farming purposes where it is wasted the most. New water saving techniques and technologies have provided hope for mitigating its impact
Innovative methods such as rain water harvesting and recycling of sewage water for kitchen gardening need to be encouraged
The sector is informal and profit margin is low which has diverted investment to other sectors Lack of financial resources and high interest rates of financial services available ,at the disposal of farmers is biggest handicaps for its growth Government should facilitate soft loans for promotion of horticulture industry for a period of five years The government should facilitate the stakeholders involved in horticulture business to access commercial credit by reducing compliance and transaction costs
Provide information to the growers on harvest technologies of fruits, removal of field heat, grading of the produce and appropriate packaging. Post harvest losses must be examined and programs planned to minimize these losses, when financially viable, through linking production to agro industrial transformation and through encouraging private sector to build cold storages. The development of appropriate packaging technologies that minimize product damage.
The marketing of horticultural products is supply based with producers being price takers and receiving lower prices during high supply periods. The Government should develop integrated value chains with producers and producer groups as an integral component of these value chains. The building of contract farming, collaborative marketing arrangements with processors etc be prioritized Market information system should be established including price-clearing houses of agricultural commodities in provincial/federal capital.
Government should promote public-private partnerships and provide incentives/ support for value addition and value creation through development of:
Environment-friendly packaging/ packaging industry Cold chain infrastructure Wholesale market infrastructure Fruit and vegetable processing and dehydration industry Integrated pest management industry and services Organic and herbal/ medicinal crop production/processing
Enhanced quality should be enforced in accordance with World Trade Organization’s (WTO) requirements
Horticulture production should be based on quality that will promote exports for which accredited quality control and testing laboratories must be established to certify quality of the produce for exports and in the domestic market. A coherent sanitary and phyto sanitary (SPS) management system for strong coordination and effective interaction between various departments involved in inspection, testing and other related activities should be facilitated The regulations and procedures of export and import of horticulture industry commodities should be reformed to reduce compliance and transaction costs as part of achieving efficiency gains
Besides increasing the production of indigenous fruits and vegetables, we have to diversify our horticultural portfolio by promoting the cultivation of exotic fruits and vegetables which are in demand at global level This is a centuries old process and is continuing all over the world. We will not face much problems as our terrain and climate suitable for production of variety of exotic horticultural products We need the services of marketing people and researchers to find those products which are globally trades and can be grown here from agronomic point Organic farming is another niche area which needs to be exploited by providing appropriate legal framework and proper incentives and support should be promoted
Production relations relate to the way land is owned, cultivated and crops are disposed of In Pakistan only two types of production relations are in vogue i.e. owner cultivation and tenant cultivation We need to also promote three other modes which are essential for modernising our horticultural transformation –cooperative, contract and corporate These are in operation in some areas but with limited success. Time has come to provide a comprehensive legal framework and institutional mechanism to streamline these production relations
Formulation of comprehensive Land Use Policy Improving Rural Infrastructure Environmental Sustainability Creating Linkages and promoting Investment Gender Mainstreaming Rural No-farm Sector
Developing a national land use policy for rational use of land resources is the need of the day as valuable arable land is being converted for non-farming purposes at alarming rates Add to it the declining fertility of our agricultural lands due to non sustainable agricultural practices plus the degradation of our lands due to water logging and salinity going on for decades, a negative side effect of our irrigation practices Lastly we are misusing our scarce land resources as we are cultivating crops on lands extremely suitable for horticultural use All these issues needed to be addressed by formulating a long term comprehensive land use policy by the government
Government should facilitate developing modern infrastructure (wholesale markets, pack houses, cold stores, reefer containers) under public - private partnerships led and managed by the private sector All-out efforts should be made for the improvement of infrastructure like roads for the safe transportation of horticulture commodities The focus should be on developing airport facilities for wide bodied cargo planes to land at airports in the main production areas, improving handling facilities at ports providing one window operation and establishing of effective and viable cold chain development
There is an urgent need to create awareness among the farmers about the looming threat of climate change/environmental degradation and popularizing the good sustainable agricultural practices among them We will have to synchronise the extension services of the provincial agricultural departments and marketing outlets of the private agro services providers to promote environment friendly practices Government should promulgation legislation for stopping of practices aggravating the threat of climate change and allocate resources for carrying out research to develop varieties responsive to climate change They need to look into adjusting the cropping pattern and finetuning the planting and harvesting schedules, practicing crop rotation and diversifying crop mix
Recent growth has wrought enormous environmental destruction in India. In a recently released report commissioned by the Indian government, the World Bank estimates that environmental degradation annually costs India a horrific 5.7 percent of GDP. This shaves off almost all of the annual six percent per capita GDP growth recorded between 2000-01 and 2010-11. Outdoor pollution alone kills 1.16 lakh people every year. Almost a quarter of India’s child deaths can be attributed to inadequate availability of clean water and sanitation, itself related to environmental degradation.
Government should not only allocate substantial funds for investment in the rural areas but also provide necessary legal framework and proper fiscal and financial incentives to encourage private sector for investing in critical areas Government should invest in improving the rural infrastructure, skill formation, research institutions and establishment of common facilitation centers It should encourage the private sector to come forward in cool chain, storage and reefer containers value addition and scientific modern processing and new technologies
All the non-crop agricultural activities provide excellent opportunities for accelerated gender mainstreaming Even presently women play an important role in livestock husbandry, poultry farming, dairy production and horticultural cultivation Targeted attention to create gender balance through skill formation, awareness campaign, financial assistance and technical support can yield handsome dividends in short period It will also help government in its efforts to reduce poverty, bulk of which is in the rural areas
Agricultural sector in general and horticultural sector in particular cannot grow to its full potential unless the rural non farm sector develop along with its formal farm sector Sustained growth of the rural economy lies in the development of efficient and effective agri-based supply chains that link the agriculture sector with their corresponding upstream and downstream links in the rural non-farm (RNF) to the national and international markets RNF provides 40-60% of incomes/jobs in rural areas, much of its activity occurs in the trading, services and processing sector having strong forward and backward linkages with agriculture Informal and low capital using entities catering mostly to domestic markets, RNF presents opportunities for providing value addition to primary production at the farm level
Pakistan has a great potential to increase its horticultural production by bringing in new areas under cultivation of horticultural products, introducing new exotic products in its horticultural portfolio, improving the productivity, adding value and increasing its exports In order to do so it will have to put more resources in research and development, extension, improving marketing infrastructure improving processing etc This demands lot of resources which can be provided by the private sector ,local and foreign, if we fine-tune our legal framework supported by appropriate institutional mechanism and added by a strict dispute resolution mechanism
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