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Define Job Analysis: Job analysis is the process of gathering information about a job.

It is, to be more specific, a systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job.

Nature of job analysis

Job Description
Job Analysis

Job Specification

Job Description: A statement containing items such as: Job Title Location Job Summary Duties Machines,tools and equipment Material and forms used Supervision given or received Working conditions Hazards

Job Specification: A statement of human qualification necessary to do the job. Contain items such as:
Education Experience Training Judgement Initiative Physical Skills Responsibilities

The process of Job analysis

The major steps involved in job analysis are:

Organisational analysis
Selection of representative positions to be analysed Collection of job analysis data Preparation of job description Preparation of job specification

Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data

Seven general techniques are generally used to collect job analysis data;

Job performance: the analyst actually performs the job in question and collects the needed information
Personal observation: the analyst observes others doing the job and writes a summary Critical incidents: job incumbents describe several incidents relating to work, based on past experience; the analyst collects, analyses and classifies data. Interview: job incumbents and supervisors are interviewed to get the most essential information about a job


Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data

Panel of experts: experienced people such as job incumbents and supervisors with good knowledge of the job asked to provide the information.

Diary method: job incumbents asked to maintain diaries or logs of their daily job activities and record the time spent and nature of work carried out.

Questionnaire method: job incumbents approached through a properly designed questionnaire and asked to provide details. The Position Analysis Questionnaire: it is a standardised form used to collect specific information about job tasks and worker traits.

Uses of Job Analysis:

Human Resource Planning Recruitment and Selection Training and Development Job Evaluation

Performance Appraisal Personnel Information Safety and Health

Job Design
DefinitionsAn outgrowth of job analysis that improves jobs

through technological and human considerations

in order to enhance organisation efficiency and employee job satisfaction.

Job Design

Job Design

Organizing tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a productive unit of work. Matching characteristics of people with characteristics of jobs.
Job Design Impacts

Person/job Fit


Job Satisfaction

Physical and Mental Health


Job Characteristics Model


Job Characteristics


Job Outcomes
Improved work performance Increased Internal motivation Lower absenteeism and turnover

Meaningfulness of the work performed

Skill variety Task identity Task significance

Responsibility for work outcomes

Autonomy Feedback

Knowledge of the results of the work


Job Characteristic Approach-

Skill variety: The degree to which a job entails a variety of different

activities, which demand the use of a number of different skills and

talents by the jobholder

Task identity: The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome

Task significance: The degree to which the job has a substantial

impact on the lives or work of other people, whether in the immediate organization or in the external environment

Autonomy: The degree to which the job provides substantial

freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used

in carrying it out

Feedback: The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual being given direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance


Classic Approaches to Job Design

Job Enlargement

Job Design

Job Enrichment

Job Rotation


Job Rotation
Movement of an employee from one job to

the other.


Job Enlargement
Adding more and different tasks to a

specialised job to provide greater variety.

This process is called horizontal job loading.


Job Enrichment
Job Enrichment (Herzberg)

a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties (vertical expansion) to make the work more rewarding or satisfying.
opportunities for achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and performance.