Preparing and Supporting Students to Work in Teams in NTU Learning Environments
Karl A. Smith
Engineering Education – Purdue University Technological Leadership Institute/ STEM Education Center/ Civil Engineering - University of Minnesota firstname.lastname@example.org - http://www.ce.umn.edu/~smith
Nanyang Business School Nanyang Technological University
Teaching Strategies for Cooperative Learning Workshop
February – March, 2012
• Organizing and Managing Project Teams – Teamwork and Leadership & Leading Learning • Supplemental
– Decision Making in a Team Environment – Managing Conflict in a Team Environment – Innovation in a Team Environment
• Strategies for designing high performance teamwork • Strategies for building teamwork skills (task and relationship skills) • Models for processing and monitoring team work • Measures of individual learning in cooperative learning (assurance of learning that demonstrates both individual and group accountability for the task output)
Teamwork Skills •Communication • Listening and Persuading •Decision Making •Conflict Management •Leadership •Trust and Loyalty
ABET Professional Skills-Can They Be Taught? Can They Be Assessed?” Journal of Engineering Education. Koseff & Lenshow. Besterfield-Sacre. 1997)
(Shuman. Vo. 2005. quoted in Leifer.. L.. 41–55. 1. and McGourty.Design team failure is usually due to failed team dynamics
(Leifer. 94. pp..)
. J. M. the hard stuff is easy
It’s the soft stuff that’s hard. 1995). No.
. W. & LeBold..Top Three Main Engineering Work Activities
Engineering Total • Design – 36% • Computer applications – 31% • Management – 29% Civil/Architectural • Management – 45% • Design – 39% • Computer applications – 20%
Burton. Parker. L. 1998. 7(9). engineering career trends. L. 18-21.S. ASEE Prism. U.
High-performing Cooperative Group Cooperative Group
Individual Members Traditional Group
TYPE OF GROUP
Characteristics of Effective Teams? •? •?
performance goals.A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose. and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
• SMALL NUMBER
• COMPLEMENTARY SKILLS
• COMMON PURPOSE & PERFORMANCE GOALS
• COMMON APPROACH
• MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITY
--Katzenbach & Smith (1993) The Wisdom of Teams
Six Basic Principles of Team Discipline
• Keep membership small • Ensure that members have complimentary skills • Develop a common purpose • Set common goals • Establish a commonly agreed upon working approach • Integrate mutual and individual accountability
Katzenbach & Smith (2001) The Discipline of Teams
Group Processing Plus/Delta Format
Plus (+) Things That Group Did Well Delta (Δ) Things Group Could Improve
• • • • •
Team name. and roles Team Mission Statement Anticipated results (goals) Specific tactical objectives Ground rules/Guiding principles for team participation Shared expectations/aspirations
•Attend all team meetings and be on time. no one dominates. avoid long anecdotes and examples. •Everyone participates. •Avoid disruptive side conversations. •Listen to and show respect for the contributions of other members. •Come prepared. •Only one person speaks at a time.Code of Cooperation
•EVERY member is responsible for the team’s progress and success. be an active listener. •Be succinct. •Attend to your personal comfort needs at any time but minimize team disruption. •No rank in the room. •Respect those not present. •Resolve conflicts constructively. •Carry out assignments on schedule. •Ask questions when you do not understand. not persons. •HAVE FUN!! •?
Adapted from Boeing Aircraft Group Team Member Training Manual
. •Pay attention. avoid disruptive behavior. •CONSTRUCTIVELY criticize ideas.
Ten Commandments: An Affective Code of Cooperation • Help each other be right. • If in doubt. not wrong. • Have fun 20 Ford Motor Company
. not for reasons they won't. • Look for ways to make new ideas work. as if it all depends on you. • Help each other win. • Don't lose faith. give it away. and take pride in each other's victories. check it out! Don't make negative assumptions about each other. • Whatever you want. • Maintain a positive mental attitude no matter what the circumstances. • Act with initiative and courage. • Speak positively about each other and about your organization at every opportunity. • Do everything with enthusiasm. it's contagious.
. & Rapp. Journal of Applied Psychology. Tammy L. 94(1). Uy for COM 321 (Organizational Behaviour) Gustavson School of Business.Team Charter Examples & Research
• Team Charter – Developed by Vivian Corwin and Marilyn A. University of Delaware • Mathieu. John E. Laying the foundation for successful team performance trajectories: The role of team charters and performance strategies. University of Victoria • Group Ground Rules Contract Form – Developed by Deborah Allan. 2009.
You can adopt additional ground rules if your group believes they are needed. Come to class and team meetings with assignments and other necessary preparations done. All group members agree to: 1. other members of the group are expected to take the following actions: Step 1: (fill in this step with your group)
If not resolved: Step 2: Bring the issue to the attention of the teaching team.Group Ground Rules Contract Form
(Adapted from a form developed by Dr. Your signature on this contract form signifies your commitment to adhere to these rules and expectations. Deborah Allen. These project group ground rules describe the general responsibilities of every member to the group.____________________________
23 4. Come to class and team meetings on time. the team should try to find a fair and equitable solution to the problem.____________________________
. The teaching team reserves the right to make the final decisions to resolve difficulties that arise within the groups. but to work best they require that all groups members clearly understand their responsibilities to one another. Before this becomes necessary. If not resolved: Step 3: Meet as a group with the teaching team. Member’s Signatures: Group Number:______________
3. Additional ground rules: 1. University of Delaware)
Project groups are an effective aid to learning. 2.
If a member of the project team repeatedly fails to meet these ground rules.
Characteristics of Admired Leaders (people you know and have worked with) Take 2 minutes and list the characteristics that come to mind for leaders you admire
Based on over 75. is trustworthy.000 people around the globe who have completed the “Characteristics of Admired Leaders” survey
. is decisive. is productive. has convictions) • Competence (is capable. is efficient) • Leadership (is inspiring.Characteristics of Admired Leaders (Kouzes & Posner)
• Integrity (is truthful. has character.
Z. 2011. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
. Credibility: How leaders 27 gain and lose it and why people demand it.M. J. & Posner.Characteristics of Admired Leaders (Percentage of People Selecting Characteristic Over the Years)
Characteristic Honest Forward-looking Inspiring Competent Intelligent Broad-minded Dependable Supportive Fair-minded Straightforward Determined Cooperative Ambitious Courageous Caring Imaginative Loyal Mature Self-controlled Independent 2010 85 70 69 64 42 40 37 36 35 31 28 26 26 21 20 18 18 16 11 6 2002 88 71 65 66 47 40 33 35 42 34 23 28 17 20 20 23 14 21 8 6 1987 83 62 58 67 43 37 32 32 40 34 20 25 21 27 26 34 11 23 13 10
Task AND Maintenance
.Distributed Actions Approach to Leadership Leadership is any action that helps a group achieve its goals AND maintain cooperative relationships among members.
Nobody in Charge by Harlan Cleveland
Leadership for the Management of Complexity
• A lively intellectual curiosity – because everything is related to everything else • A genuine interest in what other people think and why they think that way • A feeling of responsibility for envisioning a future that’s different from straight-line project of the present • A hunch that most risks are there not to be avoided but to be taken • A mindset that crises are normal. tensions can be promising. and complexity is fun • A realization that paranoia and self-pity are reserved for people who don’t want to be leaders • A sense of personal responsibility for the general outcome of your efforts • A quality of “unwarranted optimism”
• Key aspects on leading or orchestrating learning for yourself and for others?
– Your experience – Senge’s ideas? – Garvin’s ideas?
• Rationale for Focusing on Learning?
and retaining knowledge. MA: Harvard Business School Press. transferring. interpreting. acquiring. 2000. David. and at purposefully modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights – David Garvin
Garvin. Learning in action: A guide to putting the learning organization to work.Learning Organization A learning organization is an organization skilled at creating.