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Table 4.

8 Major Aspects of Training Needs Perception of Entire Sample 95% CI Services


To Build self-awareness and selfconfidence To Do the job in better way and achieve work values To Familiarize with new techniques and develop inter-personal skills To Evaluate the employees' knowledge and performance To Enhance good human relations among employees

Mean

SD
Lower Upper

t-Value

p Value

3.20 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.21

0.81 0.83 0.86 0.83 0.90

3.13 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.14

3.26 3.25 3.27 3.28 3.28

5.85*** 5.35*** 5.65*** 6.03*** 5.56***

0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

To Enhance job motivation and job adaptiveness

3.20
3.20

0.96
0.72

3.12
3.14

3.27
3.26

4.90***
6.71***

0.0000
0.0000

Overall Training Needs

Source: Primary Data; CI Confidence Interval; ***Significant at 1% level

Table 4.16
Major Aspects of Training Needs Comparison of Respondents Opinion by Number of Training Programmes Attended Major Aspects
To Build self-awareness and selfconfidence To Do the job in better way and achieve work values

One
3.25 (0.81) 3.28 (0.84) 3.31 (0.86)

23
3.16 (0.75) 3.10 (0.81) 3.14 (0.83)

>3
3.18 (0.95) 3.20 (0.86) 3.10 (0.93)

F Value
0.78

p Value
0.4585

2.92**

0.0549

3.12**

0.0449

To Familiarize with new techniques and develop inter-personal skills

To Evaluate the employees' knowledge and performance To Enhance good human relations among employees To Enhance job motivation and job adaptiveness

3.28 (0.83) 3.26 (0.92) 3.24 (0.98) 3.27 (0.72)

3.16 (0.78) 3.11 (0.86) 3.12 (0.93) 3.13 (0.68)

3.16 (0.97) 3.37 (0.95) 3.30 (0.96) 3.20 (0.81)

1.62

0.1983

3.19**

0.0421

1.74

0.1757

Overall Training Needs

2.40

0.0917

Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level

Table 4.17 Major Aspects of Training Needs Comparison of Opinion across Employee Groups by Number of Years in Service

Major Aspects To Build self-awareness and selfconfidence To Do the job in better way and achieve work values To Familiarize with new techniques and develop inter-personal skills To Evaluate the employees' knowledge and performance To Enhance good human relations among employees To Enhance job motivation and job adaptiveness

<= 5 Years 3.19 (0.79) 3.06 (0.85) 3.20 (0.87)

6 10 Years 2.99 (0.82) 3.08 (0.83) 3.03 (0.84)

11 15 Years 3.34 (0.80) 3.33 (0.83) 3.28 (0.89)

> 15 Years 3.22 (0.81) 3.24 (0.81) 3.26 (0.82)

F Value 4.23***

p Value
0.0057

3.51**

0.0151

2.23

0.0837

3.12 (0.86) 3.12 (0.95) 3.07 (0.98) 3.13 (0.72)

3.07 (0.81) 3.11 (1.00) 3.18 (0.95) 3.07 (0.73)

3.37 (0.83) 3.37 (0.81) 3.29 (0.92) 3.33 (0.71)

3.24 (0.80) 3.22 (0.85) 3.23 (0.97) 3.24 (0.69)

3.57**

0.0140

2.60**

0.0516

1.41

0.2402

Overall Training Needs

3.60***

0.0134

Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level

Table 4.20 Standardized Canonical Coefficients and Structure Matrix with Discriminant Function for Training Need Dimensions by Sector

First Function Training Need Dimensions Standardized Coefficients 0.8223

Structure Matrix
0.8803

To Build self-awareness and self-confidence To Do the job in better way and achieve work values To Familiarize with new techniques and develop inter-personal skills To Evaluate the employees' knowledge and performance To Enhance good human relations among employees To Enhance job motivation and job adaptiveness

0.2938
0.0919 -0.0374 -0.5660 0.3935

0.7183
0.7256 0.7390 0.4210 0.6720

Table 4.25 Status of Factors Underlying Training Effectiveness Perception of Entire Sample 95% CI
Lower Upper

Training Effectiveness Factors


Self-Efficacy Skill development Organizational need Employee Relations Thrive at work Self-Learning Performance evaluation Overall Training Effectiveness

Mean
3.22 3.21 3.20 3.21 3.27 3.19 3.20 3.21

SD
0.87 0.82 0.88 0.91 1.00 0.89 1.02 0.72

t-Value
5.99*** 6.24*** 5.57*** 5.47*** 6.54*** 5.06*** 4.62*** 7.12***

p Value
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

3.15 3.15 3.13 3.13 3.19 3.12 3.11 3.15

3.29 3.28 3.28 3.28 3.36 3.26 3.28 3.27

Source: Primary Data; CI Confidence Interval; ***Significant at 1% level

Table 4.26 Status of Factors Underlying Training Effectiveness Comparison of Opinion between Male and Female Employee Groups Training Effectiveness Factors
Self-Efficacy Skill development Organizational need Employee Relations Thrive at work Self-Learning Performance evaluation Overall Training Effectiveness

Male
3.23 (0.85)

Female
3.16 (0.92)

t Value
0.78

p Value
0.4330

3.25 (0.82)
3.24 (0.87) 3.22 (0.90) 3.29 (0.99) 3.20 (0.90)

3.08 (0.83)
3.05 (0.93) 3.14 (0.94) 3.19 (1.04) 3.14 (0.88)

1.90
2.12** 0.83 0.96 0.66

0.0576
0.0347 0.4048 0.3376 0.5122

3.24 (1.02)
3.24 (0.72)

3.02 (1.00)
3.11 (0.73)

2.08**
1.72

0.0375
0.0852

Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level

Table 4.33 Status of Factors Underlying Training Effectiveness Comparison of Respondents Opinion by Number of Training Programmes Attended
Training Effectiveness Factors

One 3.31 (0.85) 3.32 (0.82) 3.29 (0.85) 3.25 (0.88) 3.30 (0.98) 3.21 (0.88) 3.28 (1.08) 3.29 (0.70)

23 3.14 (0.87) 3.10 (0.82) 3.12 (0.90) 3.19 (0.94) 3.26 (1.02) 3.17 (0.90) 3.12 (0.96) 3.15 (0.72)

>3 3.19 (0.89) 3.25 (0.81) 3.24 (0.88) 3.14 (0.89) 3.24 (1.01) 3.19 (0.92) 3.19 (1.01) 3.21 (0.75)

F Value 2.41 4.61*** 2.43 0.50 0.12 0.10 1.50 2.37

p Value 0.0906 0.0104 0.0887 0.6097 0.8831 0.9021 0.2230 0.0941

Self-Efficacy Skill development Organizational need Employee Relations Thrive at work

Self-Learning
Performance evaluation Overall Training Effectiveness

Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. ***Significant at 1% level

Table 4.38 Results of Regression analysis for SELF-EFFICACY with Training Needs
Estimated Values Major Training Needs Beta
Intercept

t Value 5.85

p Value 0.0000

0.7505***

To Build self-awareness and self-confidence


To Do the job in better way and achieve work values To Familiarize with new techniques and develop inter-personal skills To Evaluate the employees' knowledge and performance To Enhance good human relations among employees To Enhance job motivation and job adaptiveness

0.1275**
0.1858*** 0.1662*** 0.1412** 0.0706 0.0796

2.23
3.32 3.03 2.29 1.50 1.79 0.4089 0.4026 65.48*** 6..568

0.0259
0.0010 0.0026 0.0223 0.1353 0.0745

R2 Adjusted R2 Model F value Degrees of freedom **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level

Table 4.39 Results of Regression analysis for SKILL DEVELOPMENT with Training Needs

Major Training Needs


Intercept To Build self-awareness and self-confidence To Do the job in better way and achieve work values

Estimated Values Beta 0.5619*** 0.1713*** 0.1980*** 0.2573*** 0.0204 0.1018*** 0.0804** t Value 5.19 3.55 4.20 5.55 0.39 2.56 2.14 0.5910 0.5260 107.16*** 6..568 p Value 0.0000 0.0004 0.0000 0.0000 0.6954 0.0108 0.0329

To Familiarize with new techniques and develop interpersonal skills To Evaluate the employees' knowledge and performance
To Enhance good human relations among employees To Enhance job motivation and job adaptiveness

R2 Adjusted R2 Model F value Degrees of freedom


*Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level

Table 4.43 Results of Regression analysis for SELF-LEARNING with Training Needs
Major Training Needs
Intercept To Build self-awareness and self-confidence To Do the job in better way and achieve work values To Familiarize with new techniques and develop interpersonal skills To Evaluate the employees' knowledge and performance To Enhance good human relations among employees To Enhance job motivation and job adaptiveness

Estimated Values Beta 0.6771*** 0.1711*** 0.1482*** 0.1376** 0.1501** 0.0737 0.1043** t Value 5.08 2.88 2.55 2.41 2.35 1.50 2.25 0.3979 p Value 0.0000 0.0041 0.0110 0.0161 0.0194 0.1331 0.0247

R2

Adjusted R2
Model F value Degrees of freedom
**Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level

0.3915
62.55*** 6..568

Table 4.56 Major Impact of Training at Work Comparison of Opinion across Employee Groups by Family Income (Monthly) Major Impact at Work
Up to Rs.15000 Rs.1500125000 Rs.2500130000 > Rs.30000

F Value

p Value

Cognitive ability

3.39 (0.94) 3.39 (0.95) 3.28 (0.95) 3.37 (0.78)

3.22 (0.96) 3.20 (0.94) 3.20 (0.94) 3.21 (0.78)

3.10 (0.94) 3.09 (0.93) 3.25 (0.93) 3.13 (0.75)

3.13 (0.89) 3.01 (0.94) 3.10 (0.89) 3.08 (0.71)

2.80**

0.0395

Use of knowledge and skills gained from training

4.32***

0.0050

Work efficiency

0.98

0.4004

Overall Impact at Work

4.04***

0.0074

Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level

Table 4.57 Major Impact of Training at Work Comparison of Respondents Opinion by Number of Training Programmes Attended Major Impact at Work
Cognitive ability Use of knowledge and skills gained from training Work efficiency Overall Impact at Work

One 3.31 (0.92) 3.25 (0.90) 3.36 (0.88) 3.29 (0.73)

23 3.18 (0.92) 3.14 (0.97) 3.11 (0.96) 3.15 (0.75)

>3 3.07 (1.03) 3.12 (0.99) 3.12 (0.92) 3.10 (0.86)

F Value 2.30 1.05 4.83*** 3.11**

p Value 0.1009 0.3508 0.0084 0.0453

Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level

Table 4.76 Status of Factors Underlying Training Impact at Organizational Level Comparison of Respondents Opinion by Number of Training Programmes Attended Major Impact at Organizational Level
Employees' self-actualization Increased productivity Stakeholders' benefit Efficient utilization of resources Organizational benefit Overall Impact on organization

One 3.25 (0.91) 3.25 (1.02) 3.34 (0.98) 3.31 (0.99) 3.22 (1.02) 3.28 (0.74)

23 3.06 (0.99) 3.09 (0.99) 3.17 (0.97) 3.21 (0.99) 3.18 (1.01) 3.14 (0.73)

>3 3.08 (1.01) 3.28 (1.02) 3.13 (0.95) 3.07 (1.01) 3.16 (0.99) 3.14 (0.78)

F Value 2.54 1.97 2.66 2.03 0.15 2.23

p Value 0.0801 0.1401 0.0710 0.1322 0.8635 0.1081

Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation.

Table 4.80 Standardized Canonical Coefficients and Structure Matrix with Discriminant Function for Training Impact at Organizational Level by Sector
First Function

Organizational Level Impact Factors


Employees' self-actualization Increased productivity Stakeholders' benefit Efficient utilization of resources Organizational benefit

Standardized Coefficients 0.2963 0.3486 0.2700 0.5478 -0.2318

Structure Matrix 0.6931 0.7432 0.6616 0.8417 0.4495

Table 4.82 Canonical Loadings of Dimensions of IMPACT AT ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL and Dimensions of TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS
Variables CRITERION VARIABLES Dimensions of Impact at Organizational Level Employees' self-actualization Increased productivity Stakeholders' benefit Efficient utilization of resources Organizational benefit PREDICTOR VARIABLES Dimensions of Training Effectiveness Self-Efficacy Skill development Organizational need Employee Relations Thrive at work Self-Learning 0.7958 0.8895 0.8582 0.7696 0.6481 0.7599 0.7480 0.7763 0.7062 0.7307 0.7755 Canonical Function

Source: Primary Data

Table 4.90 Standardized Canonical Coefficients and Structure Matrix with Discriminant Function for Employees Satisfaction by Sector First Function Organizational Level Impact Factors Standardized Coefficients 0.0910 0.4260 0.3173 -0.0873 -0.0350 0.0364 Structure Matrix 0.5651 0.7536 0.6798 0.5262 0.5737 0.4448

Satisfied with the quantum of training offered for advancement Satisfied with technical knowledge and skill acquired I can recommend this training program to other employees Materials and methods used in the training were impressive Gave me chance to have my questions answered Provided information I need to perform my job in better way

Training was at a comfortable pace so I could understand the content.


Prepared me to complete my specific job responsibilities

-0.6835
0.9345

0.3536
0.7527

Table 4.92 Canonical Loadings of Dimensions of EMPLOYEES SATISFACTIOIN and TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS
Variables
CRITERION VARIABLES Employees Satisfaction Measures
Satisfied with the quantum of training offered for advancement Satisfied with technical knowledge and skill acquired I can recommend this training programme to other employees Materials and methods used in the training were impressive Gave me chance to have my questions answered Provided information I need to perform my job in better way Training was at a comfortable pace so I could understand the content. Prepared me to complete my specific job responsibilities

Canonical Function 2 3

0.7896 0.6694 0.8672 0.8385 0.7534 0.5475 0.4839 0.5702

0.4475 0.0801 -0.4314 0.5097 -0.3762 -0.2520 0.0194 -0.0012

0.0118 0.1177 -0.2456 0.0100 0.5190 0.3427 0.1172 0.1146

0.0879 0.6006 -0.0366 -0.0804 -0.0819 -0.0075 0.3955 0.5698

PREDICTOR VARIABLES Dimensions of Training Effectiveness

Self-Efficacy Skill development Organizational need Employee Relations Thrive at work Self-Learning Performance evaluation

0.8618 0.7265 0.6691 0.8224 0.7554 0.8891 0.5886

0.5046 0.1119 0.0473 -0.3567 -0.3751 -0.4212 -0.1043

0.0096 0.0729 0.2004 0.4376 0.2647 -0.1786 -0.1495

-0.0255 0.4821 0.5825 -0.0131 -0.1246 0.0053 0.4856

Source: Primary Data