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Homeostasis and excretion

Mrs. Jackie

Homeostasis include
Maintaining a constant interval environment

despite possible fluctuations in the external environment

Include blood pH Carbon dioxide and glucose concentration

Blood glucose
Body temperature Water balance

An example of homeostasis in a non biological system

Temperatur e rises
Detected by thermostat Heater switched off

Temperatur e falls Desired temperatur e of bath water

Temperatur e rises

Temperatur e falls

Detected by thermostat

Heater switched on

Examples of homeostasis
Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations
Maintain in balance due to chemodetectors

Blood glucose Body temperature Water balance Blood PH

Main within narrow limits around 7.4 Contain buffers to minimize fluctuations in pH

Homeostasis involves monitoring levels of variables and correcting changes in levels by negative feedback mechanisms
Negative feedback
The control of a process by the result or effect of the

process in such a way that an increase in the results or effects is always reversed. Requires
Sensors require to pass the information to a center which

knows the desire value and compares the current situation to the norm. If the values are not the same the center activates a mechanisms to bring the current value to normal levels The center will turn off the mechanisms once it reaches the norm

Nervous and endocrine systems are both involved in homeostasis

Thermoregulation is done via nerves

Blood glucose levels are maintain via hormones

Nervous system consists of the central nervous system and peripheral nerves composed of neurons
Central nervous

system (CNS)

Spinal chord

Peripheral nerves
Everything else Made of neurons Transport messages in the form of electrical impulses to specific sites

Control of body temperature

Body of mammals/birds has thermo-receptors in the

skin and in the heat center in the brain for monitoring temperature changes in the environment as well as changes in the blood temperature IF the organisms is to hot
Vasodilatation- blood vessels in the skin become wider

which increases the flow of blood to the skin. Skin becomes warmer which increases heat loss to the environment. Sweating- evaporation of fluid from the skin; change of phase(liquid to gas) , requires energy which is taken from the body. Decreased metabolism- any reaction produces heat as a by product Behavior adaptations: birds-bating, desert rodent- retreat



Control of body temperature

If the organism is too cold
Vasoconstriction- blood vessels in the skin contract

which decreases the flow of blood to the skin; as a result the skin becomes colder reducing the heat loss to the environment. Shivering- any reaction will produce heat as a by product. Muscular contraction produce a lot of heat Increased metabolism: increase production of heat Fluffing of hair or feathers: increases the thickness of the insulating layer of air. Thick layer of brown fat or of blubber: this is a good insulator and reduces radiation and convection and generates heat

Endocrine system
Consist of glands which

release hormones that are transported in the blood Endocrine glands are ductless- they do not release their product into a duct but to the blood
As the hormones

passes cells, only those with special receptors will react to the presence of the

Control of glucose concentration in blood

Pancreas is both an exocrine

and endocrine gland Exocrine cells in the pancreas produce digestive enzymes which are released into the small intestine via the pancreatic duct. Endocrine cells are clustered together in groups called the Islets of Langerhans
Produce hormones which

help in regulating the blood glucose levels.

Control of blood glucose

Islet of Langerhans cells in the pancreas have

chemoreceptors which are sensitive to levels of glucose Levels of glucose can go up after a meal and down after exercise IF glucose levels are to low (see figure 1 page 138)
The alpha cells in the islets in the pancreas secrete

glucagon Glucagon- protein hormone whose main target is the liver Hepatocytes- cells of the liver will respond to the presence of glucagon by converting glycogen to

Control of blood glucose

If blood glucose levels are to high
Beta cells in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas

secrete insulin Insulin is a protein hormone travel to all parts of the body. Its presence will make the muscle cells absorbs more glucose The muscle cells and hepatocytes converte glucose into glycogen In adipose tissue glucose is converted into fat in the presence of the hormone insulin. See diagram on figure 2 page 139


Removal from an organism of the toxic waste

products of metabolism

Role of the kidney

Main functions
Maintenance of the water balance in the body and the

removal of nitrogenous metabolic waste via excretion. Two basic process

Ultrafiltration- some components of the blood flowing through

the kidney are pushed out of the blood vessels into kidney tubules. Only plasma and small particles can be filtered. Large proteins and cells stay in the blood Reabsoption- substances useful for the body such as glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed and send back to the blood. The amount of water and salts reabsorbed is regulated to maintain homeostasis. Unwanted substances become urine and is excreted