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Concept of sustainable development
Objectives 1) To introduce the concept of sustainable development 2) To list three approaches towards attaining sustainability (Herman Daly) 3) To list four goals for a society based on sustainable conception 4) To list five drafts of Stockholm declaration 5) To list five agreements of Earth Summit, 1992 6) To list 11 ways to attain sustainable development
Need of sustainable development
1. Hunter-gatherer life in the beginning 2. Wants increased— industrialization, urbanization 3. Resulted in environmental degradation—manifested differently in different regions
What does sustain mean? • To keep in existence without diminishing, to provide sustenance and nourishment • Sustainable Consumption • Sustainable production • Sustainable Community • Sustainable Agriculture • Sustainable development • Sustainable business
What is development? • To bring out the capabilities or possibilities of, to bring to • a more advanced or effective state • Not growth • To improve, make better
A sustainable community
• Nourishes, allowing all its members to flourish • Is able to continue indefinitely • Does not mean ―no change‖ or ―never changing‖ or ―status quo‖ • Does not mean utopia
How do you define a community? • A social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage • A geographic area whose size should be determined by members • Includes economic, environmental, social/cultural features of that area
What is carrying capacity? • The population that can be supported indefinitely by an ecosystem without destroying the ecosystem • Depends on available resources and per capita consumption
What is community capital? 1. Natural capital --Natural resources;
Services provided for human activity; Capacity of capital to sustain diversity and long term health.
2. Human/social capital-Connectedness to people and community; Education, skills and health of population 3. Financial/Built capital--Manufactured goods, buildings, infrastructure; Information resources; Credit and debt
• Brundtland Commission • Sustainability is: “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” • World Commission on the Environment and Development
Sustainability is: • “...improving the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems.” • Caring for the Earth • Quality of all human life • Living within the limits • Conservation and development are parts of the same process
Three approaches-Herman Daly (Economist)
1. Rates of use of renewable resources do not exceed regeneration rates, 2. Rates of use of non-renewable resources do not exceed rates of development of renewable substitutes. 3. Rates of pollution emission do not exceed assimilative capacities of the environment.
popularization of the concept of sust. devp.
• World Commission on Env. and
Devp., ( Brundtland Commission) -promote sustainable & environmentally sound devp.
• Intensified after the UN Conference for Env. and Devp. (Earth Summit) in 1992.
• Several UN texts, (eg. World Summit Outcome Document, 2005) refer economic devp., social devp. and environmental protection as "interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars" of SD.
• The UK Sustainable Development Strategy, 2005, has the objective of enabling all people throughout the world to satisfy their basic needs and enjoy a better quality of life, without compromising the quality of life of future generations. • The need to expand the economy in the long term without using up natural capital for current growth.
• Many criticize “SD" as an oxymoron claiming that economic policies based around concepts of growth and continued depletion of resources are not sustainable. • “SD" is a term invented by business people to show capitalism as ecologically friendly, and to quiet people promoting environmentalist values.
Drafts of Stockholm declaration-1) natural resources, must be safe guarded for present and future generations by careful planning and appropriate management. 2) man has special responsibility to safeguard and manage the heritage of wild life and its habitats. Discharge of toxic and other
Drafts of Stockholm declaration3) science and technology for economic and social devp. --applied to the avoidance, identification and control of env. risks and solution of env. problems. 4) scientific research and devp. related to env. problems must be promoted at all levels especially in developing countries where most of the biological diversity is available.
Drafts of Stockholm declaration5) free flow of up-to-date information and transfer of technology must be maintained in order to facilitate the solution of env. problems of developing countries and that states should ensure that international organizations play a coordinated role for the protection of environment.
• the UN conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. (the Earth summit), approved a set of agreements.
1) A global action plan for sustainable development, containing over 100 programmed areas-- trade and environment, agriculture and desertification, technology transfer. 2)The Rio Declaration on environment and Development – A statement of 27 key principles to guide the integration of environment and development policies (including the polluter pays, prevention and precautionary and participation principles)
3) The statement of principles on Forests – the first global consensus on the management, conservation and sustainable development of the world’s forests. 4) The framework convention on climate change – a legally binding agreement to stabilize greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at levels that will not upset the global climate.
5) The convention on biological diversity -- a legally binding agreement to conserve the world’s genetic, species and ecosystem diversely and share the benefits of its use in fair and equitable way.
Commission on Sustainable Develop. (CSD) 1992. Identified 4 goals towards society based on sustainable consumption. 1.Close process cycles (aiming reuse, recycle and repair) 2.Halving fossil fuel use (energy conservation, shrinking energy intensive sectors and introducing energy taxes)
3. Improving the quality of materials (using a cradle-tograve approach - more durable, repairable and recyclable) 4. Reducing transportation ( proximity principle).
Charting a course for Sustain. Develop. 1) Stabilize chemical cycles and moderate the pace of climate change. 2) Reducing the use or wastage of nonrenewable resources – 3) Sustainable use of renewable resources – 4) Keeping pollution within the absorptive capacity of local and global sinks of wastes –
Charting a course for Sustain. Develop.
5) Eliminate threat to global food security
6) Control threats to biodiversity and do steps for increasing biodiversity. 7) Complete demographic transition and stabilize world population
Charting a Sustainable course 8) Meeting human needs economically 9) Meeting social, cultural and health requirements of mankind10) Satisfying political aspirations of peoples 11) Provide environmental education
• Sustainable development, thus, is a moderate position between the extremes of no growth versus unlimited growth, and is based on the use of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems.
Measures of sustainable development
1) To list 5 Es of sustainability 2) To describe the concept of indicators for measuring sustainable development 3) To list 7 indicators 4) To list characteristics of a good indicator 5) To list 11 questionnaires for evaluating indicators
• ECONOMY- devp. plans compatible with nature- that protect and/or enhance natural resources. • ECOLOGY– understanding natural ecosystem capacity . • EQUITY - Well-being, equal access to jobs, education, resources, and services. • EDUCATION - Learning, awareness, & training — interdisciplinary curriculum. • EVALUATION - Measuring the making of a Difference — identifying key sustainability indicators.
The Five Es of Sustainability
• What is an indicator? • A way to measure, indicate, point out or point to with more or less exactness; • Something used to show visually the condition of a system.
Indicators of sustainability- are for • Measuring progress • Explaining sustainability- by making it more concrete • Educating community- about what is important • Showing linkages- between different parts of community• Motivating- people to act • Focusing action-on critical issues
• Nature provides materials for production. • Production provides jobs.
• Jobs alleviate poverty
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
What makes a good indicator? Addresses carrying capacity Is relevant to the community Is understandable to community Is usable by the community Takes a long term view of progress Shows links between economy, environment and society
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Environmental indicators Cultural/social indicators Economic indicators National economic indicators Gross national product Genuine progress indicator Ecological foot print-water foot printcarbon foot print
1. Eg. Environmental Indicators • Parts per million of particulate matter in the air • Number of good air quality days • Increase in asthma-related hospital admissions • Number of vehicle miles traveled • Annual emissions of greenhouse gases per person
2. Eg.Cultural/Social Indicators
• Number of runaway children • Number of reported abuse cases • Families with satisfactory child care arrangements • Families with adequate income
3. Eg. Economic Indicators
• Net job growth • Employment diversity • Number of jobs with benefits • Work required to support basic needs
4.Eg. of national economic indicators • Gross National/Domestic Product • Genuine Progress Indicator • Ecological Footprint
5. Gross National Product
Gross National Product • Generally considered to measure economic welfare • Actually a measure of money flow between businesses and households • Rises when money is spent for problems like health care and natural disasters. • Does not include non-market activities such as volunteer labour.
Genuine Progress Indicator
6. Eg. Genuine Progress Indicator
• • • • •
Volunteer labor Cost of crime Family breakdown Underemployment Ozone depletion Loss of old growth forests
7. Eg. Ecological Footprint
• Estimate of resources consumed • Relates economy to carrying capacity • Not a measure of quality of life, measure of life style
Sustainable Community Indicators
• Energy use per person • Percent of land area that is natural, modified, cultivated, built, and degraded • Number of hours working at the average wage needed to pay for basic needs • Acres of land redeveloped • Number of acres of farmland remaining in the county • Percent of food produced locally • Annual fuel consumption and number of vehicle miles • traveled • Dollars spent in local community that stay local • Percent of goods made from recycled material • Annual harvest of timber compared to growth rate
Making a better indicator • Measure what you want to be • Make a measure that speaks to people • Measure the cause not just the effect
Making measures that speak to people • Relate to sustainability • Make it personal • Focus on the goal • If people cannot understand an indicator, it won’t help • If people do not see what they can do to fix a problem, it won’t help.
A traditional indicator –
A more personal indicator –
Measure cause and effect • Pressure: activity causing state • State: condition that exists • Response: actions to change state
Pressure - State - Response
Relevant to the community Understandable and useable by the community Long-term view Links different facets of community Addresses carrying capacity—use of resources and size of population • Pressure state or response need to be considered • Type of capital -- social, financial and natural • • • • •
• • • • • • •
Environmental Indicators Resource Use Cost of solid waste disposal Number of people recycling Pounds of material recycled Number of products made from recycled material Number of products made to be recycled, repairable, compostable
Economic Indicators Income Median income Distribution of personal income Hours of work needed to support basic needs • Economic indicators • • • • •
Transportation Indicators Waiting time at intersection Number of cars at peak period Time devoted to non-recreational travel Portion of household expenses spent on transportation • Percent of vehicles powered by renewable energy • Ability of non-drivers to reach employment centers • • • • •
Land Use Indicators Number of permits issued Number of housing starts Change in urban area vs. change in population • Acres of farmland lost to development • Land per capita used for transportation • Change in amount of impervious surfaces • • • •
Characteristics of effective indicators • Relevant; they show you something about the system that you need to know. • Understandable, even by people who are not experts. • Reliable; you can trust the information that the indicator is providing. • Based on accessible data; data is available or can be gathered.
• Energy use per person • Annual emissions of greenhouse gases per person • Percent of land area that is natural, modified, cultivated, built, and degraded • Number of hours working at the average wage needed to pay for basic needs • Acres of land redeveloped • Number of acres of farmland remaining in the county • Percent of food produced locally • Annual fuel consumption and number of vehicle miles traveled • Amount spent in local community that stay local • Percent of goods made from recycled material • Annual harvest of timber compared to growth rate • (Caring for the Earth )
Sustainable Community Indicators
• Replace nationally and internationally produced items with products created locally and regionally. • Take responsibility for the effects they have on the natural world. • Do not require exotic sources of capital in order to develop and grow. • Engage in production processes that are human, worthy, dignified, and intrinsically satisfying. • Create objects of durability and long-term utility whose ultimate use or disposition will not be harmful to future generations. • Change consumers to customers through education. • Paul Hawken, “The Ecology of Commerce”
• • •
Sustainable Production Products and services are ecologically safe through out their life cycle Processes and technologies minimize or eliminate hazards and wastes Workers are valued and their skills and capabilities are continuously developed Communities are respected and enhanced economically, socially, culturally, and physically Lowell Center for Sustainable Production
Sustainable Agriculture • “..farmers in sustainable agriculture are concerned about feeding their families and paying their bills, but those are not their only goals in life. They set out to protect the land, improve their quality of life, and enhance the communities in which they live. Their day-to-day decisions are not guided by a single minded search for profit, but by a delicate balancing act among many goals.”
• Dick Levins, Land Stewardship Program, Minnesota
Sustainable Agriculture Indicators
• Reliance on government programs • Use of equipment, chemicals and nonrenewable energy • Creation of jobs • Balance between feed use and feed production
• 1.Does the indicator address the carrying capacity of the natural resources -- renewable and nonrenewable, local and nonlocal -- that the community relies on?
the indicator address the carrying capacity of the ecosystem services upon which the community relies, whether local, global, or from distant sources?
3. Does the indicator address the carrying capacity of aesthetic qualities -- the beauty and life-affirming qualities of nature -- that are important to the community?
4. Does the indicator address the carrying capacity of the community's human capital -- the skills, abilities, health and education of people in the community?.
5.Does the indicator address the carrying capacity of a community's social capital -- the connections between people in a community: the relationships of friends, families, neighborhoods, social groups, businesses, governments and their ability to cooperate, work together and interact in positive, meaningful ways?
the indicator address the carrying capacity of a community's built capital -- the human-made materials (buildings, infrastructure, and information) that are needed for quality of life and the community's ability to maintain and enhance those materials with existing resources?
7. Does the indicator provide a long-term view of the community?
Does the indicator address the issue of economic, social or biological diversity in the community?
Does the question address the issue of equity or fairness -either between current community residents (intragenerational equity) or between current and future residents (inter-generational equity)?
10. Is the indicator understandable to and usable by its intended audience?
11. Does the indicator measure a link between economy and environment; environment and society; society and economy? 12. Does the indicator measure sustainability that is at the expense of another community or at the expense of global sustainability?
• • • • • • •
Economic Development Corporations Civic Organizations Environmental Groups Business Groups Nonprofits Foundations Religious Organizations Government Agencies--Local, Regional, State, and Federal
Who is Working on Sustainability?
• • • • • • • • •
How are They Working on it? Visioning Community Forums Community Profiles Master Plans Location (Special Place) Mapping Resource Mapping Community Income Statements Neighborhood Eco-Teams Local Currency Sustainability Evaluation Indicators
• “ ... it has always been my hope that the council would show the vision... and, more than creating a quality lifestyle, create a different lifestyle, a lifestyle more appropriate to a planet of diminishing resources,...to look at new job opportunities, to tune into the changing world and be able to change and adapt to it.”
• Mount Washington Valley Economic Council Member
Why are People Working on it?
• Replace national and international products with products created locally and regionally. • Take responsibility for their effects on environment. • Do not require exotic sources of capital to develop and grow. • Engage in production processes that are human, worthy, dignified, and satisfying. Create objects of durability and long-term utility whose use or disposition will not be harmful to future generations.
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