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# Digital Electronics

## Principles & Applications

Seventh Edition

Roger L. Tokheim
Chapter 1

Digital Electronics

INTRODUCTION
Analog vs. Digital

## Why Digital or Analog?

Generating a Digital Signal Multivibrators Defining Logic Levels Testing for Digital Signals Using a Logic Probe Mounting ICs

## Analog vs. Digital

Analog signal- one whose output varies continuously in step with the input.

Example:
Analog

Digital signal- one whose output varies at discrete voltage levels commonly called HIGH or LOW (1 or 0). Example:
Digital
Time

HIGH or 1 LOW or 0

QUIZ
1. A(n) __________ signal is one whose output varies at discrete voltage levels commonly referred to as HIGH or LOW (1 or 0). 2. A(n) __________ signal is one whose output varies continuously in step with the input. 3. A sine wave (sinusoidal waveform) is an example of a(n) __________ signal. 4. A square wave is an example of a(n) __________ signal. digital

analog

analog

digital

Why Digital?
Data can be stored (memory characteristic of digital). Data can be used in calculations. Compatible with display technologies. Compatible with computer technologies. Systems can be programmed. Digital IC families make design easier.

Why Analog?
Analog processing is usually simpler. Analog processing is usually faster. Traditional electronic systems were mostly analog in nature.

QUIZ
1. Most real world measurements (like temperature, speed, pressure, etc.) are __________ (analog, digital) in nature. 2. Electronic circuits that store information and make calculations are probably __________ (analog, digital) in nature. 3. Electronic devices that can be programmed and have alphanumeric displays probably contain __________ (analog, digital) circuitry. analog

digital

digital

4. Traditional circuitry (as in TVs) was probably __________ (analog, digital) in nature.

analog

+5 V

## HIGH undefined LOW time

CAUTION: Note: signal goes H, L, H, Switch bounce UNDEFINED, and finally HIGH. may cause problems.

0V

Debounced Switch
Debouncing Latch

## NOTICE no switch bounce!!

HIGH LOW

time

Multivibrators
One-shot (monostable) - an electronic device that emits a single pulse when triggered. Free-running (astable) - an electronic device that oscillates between two stable states (HIGH and LOW). Commonly called a clock in digital systems. Latch (bistable) - an electronic device that has two stable states (HIGH and LOW) and must be triggered to jump from one to the other. Commonly called a flip-flop. Commonly used as temporary memory.

## Producing a Digital Pulse

One-shot multivibrator

The PULSE WIDTH is determined by the design of the multivibrator and NOT how long the input pushbutton is pressed.

## A free-running multivibrator produces a continuous string of digital pulses.

Free-running multivibrator

## Note: This can also be called a clock.

QUIZ
1. A(n) __________ (astable, monostable) multivibrator is an electronic device that generates a continuous string of digital pulses. It may also be called a clock or a freerunning MV. 2. A(n) __________ (astable, monostable) multivibrator is an electronic device that generates a single digital pulse when triggered. 3. A(n) __________ (bistable, monostable) multivibrator is an electronic device that has two stable states. It is also called a flip-flop and is used as a latch to hold data. 4. A(n) __________ (astable, monostable) multivibrator is an electronic device that is sometimes called a oneshot MV. astable

monostable

bistable

monostable

## Defining Logic Levels

Logic devices interpret input voltages as either HIGH or LOW. TTL or CMOS IC families have their unique voltage profiles. Both TTL and CMOS IC input voltage profiles are shown below.
TTL Family of ICs CMOS Family of ICs
100% 90%

CAUTION:
Input voltages in the UNDEFINED region may yield unpredictable results.
HIGH

HIGH

## 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 20% 30% 10% 0%

Undefined

LOW

LOW

Voltage

Undefined

QUIZ
1. An input voltage of +3.5V to a TTL IC (+5V supply) would be considered a __________ (H, L, undefined) logic level. 2. An input voltage of +0.5V to a TTL IC (+5V supply) would be considered a __________ (H, L, undefined) logic level. HIGH

LOW

3. An input voltage of +1V to a CMOS IC (+10V supply) would be considered a __________ (H, L, undefined) logic level.
4. An input voltage of +9V to a CMOS IC (+10V supply) would be considered a __________ (H, L, undefined) logic level. 5. An input voltage of +1.5V to a TTL IC (+5V supply) would be considered a __________ (H, L, undefined) logic level.

LOW

HIGH

undefined

## Testing for a Digital Signal

LED Output Indicators
Logic Probe

DMM or VOM
Oscilloscope Logic Analyzer

## Transistor-Driven LED Output Indicator

Activate input Switch (mouse click)

+5 V 150 W

10 kW
+5 V

Q1

## Logic Probe Behavior Versus Logic Levels

TTL
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

CMOS HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

## Logic Probe Behavior Versus Logic Levels

TTL
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

CMOS HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

## Logic Probe Behavior Versus Logic Levels

TTL
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

CMOS HIGH

HIGH

LOW

LOW

## The FLOATING indicator lights.

Note: This response varies with the design of the Logic Probe.

## Logic Probe Dynamic Response

Pulse stretching also allows high frequencies to be displayed.

## The probe toggles between HIGH and LOW.

QUIZ
1. A simple handheld instrument for detecting HIGH, LOW, and Undefined digital logic levels is called a __________ (logic analyzer, logic probe). logic probe transistor

2. In the lab, a simple LED indicator circuit can be built using a __________ (transistor, voltage comparator) to drive the LED.

3. In CMOS (using a 10V power supply), a voltage of 9V would light the __________ (HIGH, LOW, Undefined) indicator on a logic probe.
4. In TTL (using a 5V power supply), a voltage of 0.2V would light the __________ (HIGH, LOW, Undefined) indicator on a logic probe. 5. If the input to a logic probe is 50Hz square wave, the output would __________ (read HIGH, toggle between HIGH and LOW).

HIGH

LOW

## Mounting ICs: Insertion Technology

Device leads pass through holes in the circuit board.

Solder

## Mounting ICs: Surface Mount Technology

Solder

Devices placed by automatic equipment Circuit boards cost less (fewer holes) Higher connection density Smaller and less expensive products Difficult to repair