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Lymphatic System

by: Mohamad Taufik Hidayat b. Baharuldin Unit of Physiology, Department of Human Anatomy, FPSK, UPM

- Sistem limfatik mewakili satu jalan tambahan ; melaluinya cecair berlebihan dlm ruang interstitial (ruang antara sel) dikembalikan ke edaran sistemik - Juga ia mengangkut protein & molekul besar yang tidak dapat diserap secara langsung ke dalam kapilari

Ia dibina oleh rangkaian salur b’dinding nipis yang membawa cecair jernih – cecair limfa .. wujud ‘dead end’ .Sistem limfatik bukan satu sistem/ litar tertutup.Tiada pam pusat but each segment of the lymphatic vessels function as a separate automatic pump Dead end capillary Highly permeable .

Secara umum sistem limfa mempunyai 4 fungsi utama : (1) Mengumpul cecair & protein berlebihan dalam cecair interstitial masuk ke aliran darah (2) Mengangkut lemak di usus kecil (Sistem Percernaan) (3) Musnahkan mikro-organisma dan bahan asing (4) Menyediakan perlindungan jangka masa panjang dari mikro-organisma dan bahan asing .

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Struktur Kapilari limfatik Fungsi mengumpul cecair berlebihan dari tisu Salur limfatik (collecting vessels) m’bawa cecair limfa dari kapilari limfatik ke salur vena di leher Nodus limfa situated along collecting lymphatic vessels. filter foreign material from lymph *** Tonsils musnahkan agen asing di bhgn atas salur respiratori & sistem pencernaan .

Struktur Kelenjar timus Fungsi membentuk antibodi pada bayi. berperanan dalam perkembangan sistem imun Nodul limfa terkumpul Respons terhadap antigen yg hadir dalam usus hasilkan antibodi .

The Immune System .

The Immune System Non-specific defenses Specific defenses 1st line Immune response @ immunity 2nd line Cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) Antibodymediated immune response (AMIR) .

Physical barrier from entering body .Skin & Mucous membranes Skin .Normal flora will restrict growth of bad/dangerous microorganisms .Outer layer of the skin-epidermis .Non-specific defenses 1st line defense .Shedding epidermis surface.remove microbiology .

dust & pollutants from inhaled air .Coughing & sneezing accelerate movement of mucus & its entrapped pathogens out of the body . mouth. lungs. prevents from entering the tissues . waving action propels inhaled dust & microbes that trapped in mucus toward the throat . digestive system & reproductive system .Mucous membranes of the nose has mucus-coated hairs that trap & filter microbes.Nasal passages.Mucous membranes .Mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract contains cilia.Stickiness mucus traps many microorganism.

Gastric juice: produced by the glands of the stomach is a mixture of hydrochloric acid. The strong acidity destroy many bacterial & most bacterial toxin .Lacrimal apparatus : manufacture tears to drain away irritants ..Defecation & vomiting expel microbes : diarrhea rapidly expels many microbes . enzymes and mucus.Saliva : washes microbes from the surface of the teeth .

Complement: plasma proteins that have the ability to enhance both the nonspecific and specific defense systems of the body . (3)inflammation & (4)fever (1) Antimicrobial proteins . natural killer cells.Internal defenses .When pathogens penetrate the physical & chemical barrier. .Non-specific defenses 2nd line defense . (2)phagocytes.Interferons: released from virus-infected cell. Bind to receptor of adjacent cell to produce antiviral proteins.Transferrins: inhibit growth of bacteria . they encounter a second line of defense: (1)antimicrobial proteins.

Phagocytes – perform phagocytosis. ingestion of microbes or other particles e..Phagocytosis occurs in 6 stages . neutrophils & monocytes . . the next nonspecific line of defense are…… (2) Natural Killer Cells & Phagocytes Natural Killer Cells – lymphocytes that have the ability to induce cytolysis. cellular debris.When microbes penetrate skin & mucous membranes or bypass the antimicrobial proteins in blood. kill a wide variety of infectious microbes & certain tumor cells.g.Two types.

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Characterized by redness pain heat swelling .(3) Inflammation Tissue damage by punctures. infections or toxin Inflammation of the tissue. burns. foreign objects. abrasions.

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Abnormally high body temperature b’coz the hypothalamic thermostat is reset .(4) Fever .Bacterial toxins elevate body temperature .Elevated body temperature inhibits the growth of some microbes thru intensifying the effect of interferons .