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• A set of principles about:
Goals of language teaching Roles of teachers and learners
How learners

The kinds of classroom activities that facilitate learning

learn a language

• To be able to master the rules of sentence formation in a language and able to use the language for meaningful communication. . • To become a communicative competent.

Aspect of language knowledge Use of language for different range and function Vary our language according to the setting and participant Produce and understand different types of text Maintain communication .

Interaction Collaboration creating of meaning Attending to the feedback learners get when using the language Creating meaningful and purposeful interaction Paying attention the language heard Negotiation of meaning Trying out and experimenting with different ways of saying things .

Old methods • Memorise • Controlled by teacher New methods • Pair work • Group discussion • Role play • Simulation • Project • Quiz • Problem solving .

Leaners Participate in activities Give attention and cooperation Comfortable with teacher and peers Teachers As a monitor and facilitator Develop different view of learners’ error .

Traditional approaches (up to the late 1960s) Classic CLT (1970s – 1990s) Current CLT (1990s – present) .

• Priority to grammatical competence as the basic of language learning • Learning of grammar through direct instruction and repetitive practice and drilling • The approach of teaching is deductive • Great attention to accurate pronunciation mastery of grammar .

• Typical lesson according to three phase sequence (P-P-P) • Presentation-grammar structure presented • Practice-students practice using the grammar structure • Production-students practice using the new structure using different context using their own information .

• Knowledge and skills needed to use grammar and other aspects of language appropriate for different communicative purpose .

Aspect of language to develop communicative competent • • • • • • • • • • Purpose of the language Setting Role of the speaker Communicative events participated Language functions Notions of concepts involved Discourse and rhetoric skills Grammatical content Vocabulary Variety of language .

• 8 changes in approaches to language teaching Learners autonomy Focus on meaning Social nature of learning Curricular integration Thinking skills Diversity Alternative assessment Teachers as co-learners .

• Linking grammatical development to the ability to communicate • Use both deductive and inductive learning approaches • Contents connect to students’ live and interests • Classroom materials make use of authentic text • Create the need for communication .

Accuracy vs fluency Mechanical. meaningful and communicative practice Information-gap activities Jig saw activities .

Activities for accuracy • Reflect natural use of language • Focus on achieving communication • Require meaningful language • Use of communication strategies • Produce of language maybe unpredictable • Seek to link language use to context Activities for fluency • Reflects classroom use of language • Focus on the formation correct examples of language • Practice language out of context • Practice small sample of language • Do not require meaningful communication • Choice of language is control .

Mechanical • Controlled practice activities • Students do not necessary need to understand the meaning • Eg. Repetition drills and substitution drills Meaningful • Language is control but students are require to understand the language • Eg. Giving maps to learn preposition Communicative practice • Practice using language within a real communicative context • Eg. Draw maps of their neighborhood and answer questions .

Looking for differences in pictures .• In real communication people will normally communicate in order to get information they do not possess • Can be done in pair works or group works • Eg.

• To gather information to complete a task • Students must use language resources to communicate meaningfully .

opinions and information Role play Information transfer .• • • • • • • • Puzzle Language games Map reading Survey Interviews Compare ideas.

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