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the rich world insists poor states play by our rules. But they don't work. Duncan Green.
Power and Poverty
Lecturer: Dr. Agnes A Babugura (C2.29), Phone 011 950 4083 firstname.lastname@example.org
• Required Texts: Duncan Green. Poverty and Development into the 21st Century. From Poverty to power. Open University & Oxford University Press. Thomas eds. Available in the library. Allen and A. . 2008. 2000. Oxfam Publishing • Other recommended text books: T. you will be informed when they are available. Other books have been ordered.
poverty and development in the contemporary world.Introduction This unit focuses on the interrelated nature of power. .
•Actively participate in tutorial discussions to understand the geographies of inequality and explain the persistence of uneven global development. •Understand key concepts and theoretical perspectives used in approaches to international development •Develop the ability to critically analyse the distinctive problems and prospects associated with international development. . students will need to: •Demonstrate an understanding of the diversity of the development experience. •Demonstrate an understanding of the institutional and community responses to international aid and development policies.LEARNING OBJECTIVES •To successfully complete this unit. •Identify the opportunities and constraints related to development in industrialising countries and disadvantaged indigenous communities living within wealthy nations.
Poverty and Development .Concepts of Power.
subjects or objects. 1992 Refers broadly to any ability to effect change or exert control over either things or people. .POWER James VanHise.
. Can power be absolute? Think about what it must have been like to be an early human.ABSOLUTE POWER What is the true nature of power ? What are the origins of hierarchy (there are the dominators. and there are the dominated).
which become empires. Wars of domination begin to shape history into the bloody struggle we know it to be. City-states become nationstates. .At some point in history and civilization we start to see the social model of an elite class ruling over other men and women. State power grows.
. The religion of science and technology is all about domination and control: domination and control of nature.The ideology of domination and control took another ominous turn in the 17th century with the birth of science. domination and control of other humans.
from the dominator to the dominated. we understood the dynamics of give and take among humans. and between humans and nature. Today we tend to think of power as absolute—flowing one way. .Initially we lived close to nature in democratic. matricentric communities.
We can dam the river. But we can't. We may think we are the Wise Rulers of nature. . but the torrential rains will eventually come. dependent on Mama for our every need. Nature lives within us as much as we live within it. but in fact we are small children.We think we can completely dominate nature through our science and technology. All the elements of our highly "advanced" civilization ultimately depend on the natural world. We can never fully dominate nature because nature is a part of us—it is who and what we are. and the river will wash us all away. and our attempts always have unforeseen consequences. the dam will break.
the rule of dictators and other elite groups is always weak and unstable. despite appearances to the contrary. Political power is never absolute as long as the dominated maintain their freedom of will and their will to freedom.Likewise. Even the most ruthless leader depends on the cooperation and voluntary submission of his subjects. .
All power relationships are interactive.Power can never be absolute. mutually modulating and reciprocal. However power starts to take different forms .
crushes the weak.POWER-OVER It is the kind of power that strives for total control and total domination at any cost. extends itself wherever it can. It makes no distinctions between right and wrong. It must expand or die. It seeks to rule unilaterally . It fills all vacuums.
The development of power-over initiated the founding of civilization. and increasingly ever-present global organization (themselves products of the domination mentality)—have given Power the tools to dominate and control as never before. Our present problems have their roots in the defining characteristics of civilization itself: domination and control. two trends—the accelerating sophistication of technology. . In the last century.
They desire the capacity to control the lives of large numbers of people. . In fact. or making the world a better place. or carrying out the will of his/her voters. It is the politician's job to make us believe that he/she is committed to helping people. a true politician has but one goal: attainment of more power.Politicians love power-over.
it becomes truth. and our actions help shape the world we live in. .THE POWER OF BELIEF When we believe in something. This is because our beliefs determine the choices we make in our lives.
is a blueprint for the kind of society they create. A society that believes humans are violent and bloodthirsty will suffer from crime and war. . A society that believes in domination and control will be stratified and hierarchical. A society that believes making money is the key to happiness will be competitive and materialistic.What people believe .
more moral. we have in effect participated in our own enslavement. By allowing ourselves to be convinced that someone else is stronger. This apparent usurpation is all the more startling when we realize that power is based on simple belief. . closer to God.At some point in our evolution we gave up social power—the power of community—and allowed it to be seized by one person or group. more knowledgeable. or just more powerful than we are.
THE POWER OF FEAR "Fear makes us the instruments of Power. we obey do anything to feel safer. When we are afraid.“ .
afraid of going to hell. afraid of not being loved. afraid of AIDS. afraid of failure. Fear therefore limits our freedom. afraid of losing our jobs. keeps us from enjoying life to its fullest. afraid of chaos. prevents us from reaching our true human potential. afraid of terrorism.Fear is instilled in us at an early age and infects our perceptions throughout our lives. . We are taught to be afraid of crime.
Afraid of immigrants? Keep them out. e. Afraid of unemployment? Work harder. . Afraid of failure? Don't take chances. Afraid of crime? Hire more police and build more prisons.Fear also influences some of the choices we make in life.g. Afraid of AIDS? Don't have sex.
the non-conformist.“ This is where you find that Individuals and small groups can act as catalysts for major social and political changes. . They know that even small acts of resistance can have unforeseen consequences.THE POWER OF ONE LIFE "Those in power are frightened by the rebel.
but amazing changes can be initiated by small groups. See Charter 77 . . or even individuals. It demanded that the Communist government of Czechoslovakia recognize some basic human rights.It usually takes a mass movement to overthrow a government. Systems that externally appear massive and untouchable can be threatened by seemingly insignificant acts. This is a petition drawn up by a few Czechoslovakian writers and intellectuals.
Chaos is the enemy of Power. . Any act that challenges the false premises that Power's world is constructed upon is a threat to Power.Truth is the enemy of Power. Any act. that disturbs the smooth-running social engine is a threat to Power. no matter how mild it may seem on the surface.
. We also look at the concept of development.In the next lecture we look at poverty and the link to power.
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