Simple
Cheap
Used In residential heating and domestic refrigerators
Limited use in process control due to continuous
cycling of controlled variable excessive wear
on control valve.
Example 1: Temperature control of jacketed vessel.
Feedback Controllers
1
OnOff Controllers
Synonyms:
twoposition or bangbang controllers.
Controller output has two possible values.
2
Three Mode (PID) Controller
Proportional
Integral
Derivative
Proportional Control
Define an error signal, e, by e = R  B
where
R= set point
B = measured value of the controlled variable
(or equivalent signal from transmitter)
3
Since signals are time varying,
e(t) = R(t)  B(t)
n.b. Watch units!!
For proportional control:
where,
p(t) = controller output
= bias value (adjustable)
K
c
= controller gain (dimensionless, adjustable)
p  p = p e(t) K + p = p(t)
c
'
p
4
 Proportional Band, PB
 Reverse or Direct Acting Controller
 K
c
can be made positive or negative
 Recall for proportional FB control:
or
 DirectActing (K
c
< 0)
output increases as input increases"
p(t) B(t)
 ReverseActing (K
c
> 0)
output increases as input decreases"
c
K
% 100
PB
e(t) K + p = p(t)
c
  B(t)  R(t) K + p = p(t)
c
5
 Transfer Function for Proportional Control:
Let
Then controller input/output relation can be written as
At zero steady state
Take Laplace transform of each side,
or
INTEGRAL CONTROL ACTION
Synonyms: "reset", "floating control"
t
1
reset time (or integral time)  adjustable
p  p(t) (t) p
'
e(t) K (t) p
c
'
E(s) K (s) P
c
'
c
K
E(s)
(s) P
'
s
1
E(s)
(s) P
t d ) t ( e
1
p ) t ( p
I
t
0 I
t
=
'
' '
t
+ =
}
6
(
' '
t
+ + =
}
t
0 I
c
t d ) t ( e
1
) t ( e K p ) t ( p
ProportionalIntegral (PI) Control
Response to unit step change in e:
7
Integral action eliminates steadystate error
(i.e., offset) Why??? e = 0 p is changing with
time until e = 0, where p reaches steady state.


.

\

t
+ =
'
s
1
1 K
E(s)
(s) P
I
c
Transfer function for PI control
8
Derivative Control Action
 Ideal derivative action
 Used to improve dynamic response of the
controlled variable
 Derivative kick (use db/dt )
 Use alone?
 Some controllers are calibrated in 1/t
I
("repeats per minute") instead of t
I
.
p
dt
de
p ) t ( p
D
t + =
 For PI controllers, is not adjustable.
9
ProportionalIntegralDerivative (PID) Control
Now we consider the combination of the proportional, integral,
and derivative control modes as a PID controller.
Many variations of PID control are used in practice.
Next, we consider the three most common forms.
Parallel Form of PI D Control
The parallel form of the PID control algorithm (without a
derivative filter) is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0
1
* * (813)
t
c D
I
de t
p t p K e t e t dt
dt
(
= + + +
(
}
10
The corresponding transfer function is:
( )
( )
1
1 (814)
c D
I
P s
K s
E s s
'
(
= + +
(
Series Form of PI D Control
Historically, it was convenient to construct early analog
controllers (both electronic and pneumatic) so that a PI element
and a PD element operated in series.
Commercial versions of the seriesform controller have a
derivative filter that is applied to either the derivative term, as in
Eq. 812, or to the PD term, as in Eq. 815:
( )
( )
1 1
(815)
1
I D
c
I D
P s
s s
K
E s s s
'
  
+ +
=
 
+
\ .\ .
11
Expanded Form of PI D Control
In addition to the wellknown series and parallel forms, the
expanded form of PID control in Eq. 816 is sometimes used:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
0
* * (816)
t
c I D
de t
p t p K e t K e t dt K
dt
= + + +
}
Features of PID Controllers
Elimination of Derivative and Proportional Kick
One disadvantage of the previous PID controllers is that a
sudden change in set point (and hence the error, e) will cause the
derivative term momentarily to become very large and thus
provide a derivative kick to the final control element.
12
13
Automatic and Manual Control Modes
Automatic Mode
Controller output, p(t), depends on e(t), controller
constants, and type of controller used.
( PI vs. PID etc.)
 Manual Mode
Controller output, p(t), is adjusted manually.
 Manual Mode is very useful when unusual
conditions exist:
plant startup
plant shutdown
emergencies
Percentage of controllers "on manual ??
(30% in 2001, Honeywell survey)
14
Digital PID Controller
where,
= the sampling period (the time between
successive samples of the controlled variable)
= controller output at the nth sampling
instant, n=1,2,
= error at the nth sampling unit
velocity form  see Equation (819)
(Ap
d
) incremental change
( )
(
A
t
+
t
A
+ + =
=
1 n n
D
1 n
1 k
k
I
n c n
e e
t
e
t
e K p p
n
p
n
e
t A
15
PID Most complicated to tune (K
c
, t
I
, t
D
) .
Better performance than PI
No offset
Derivative action may be affected by noise
PI More complicated to tune (K
c
, t
I
) .
Better performance than P
No offset
Most popular FB controller
P Simplest controller to tune (K
c
).
Offset with sustained disturbance or set point
change.
Controller Comparison
16
17
Typical Response of Feedback Control Systems
Consider response of a controlled system after a
sustained disturbance occurs (e.g., step change in
disturbance variable)
18
19
20
Summary of the Characteristics of the Most
Commonly Used Controller Modes
1. Two Position:
Inexpensive.
Extremely simple.
2. Proportional:
Simple.
Inherently stable when properly tuned.
Easy to tune.
Experiences offset at steady state.
3. Proportional plus integral:
No offset.
Better dynamic response than reset alone.
Possibilities exist for instability due to lag
introduced.
21
4. Proportional plus derivative:
Stable.
Less offset than proportional alone (use of
higher gain possible).
Reduces lags, i.e., more rapid response.
5. Proportional plus reset plus rate:
Most complex
Rapid response
No offset.
Difficult to tune.
Best control if properly tuned.
22
Example 3: Liquid Level Control
Control valves are airtoopen
Level transmitters are direct acting
23
Question:
1. Type of controller action?
24
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