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University of Cambridge

The CES EduPack

Unit 1. The materials and processes universe:


families, classes, members and attributes

Mike Ashby , Cambridge, UK, 2009


MFA 2009

The expansion of the materials world

In his day: a few hundred materials No polymers now over 45,000

No light alloys now several thousand No composites now hundreds

Today: > 160,000 engineering materials

James Stuart, Professor of Engineering at Cambridge 1875 - 1890

MFA 2009

Outline
Background: the motivation
Materials and their attributes The CES EduPack and its use Hands-on session 1, with exercises
Resources: Materials: engineering, science, processing and design by M.F. Ashby, H.R. Shercliff and D. Cebon, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford 2007, Chapters 1 and 2 Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, 3rd edition by M.F. Ashby, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 2006, Chapters 1 - 3. Callister, Budinski, Askeland and others recommended reading in records CES EduPack 2009 software ( Grantadesign.com)

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Teaching materials to engineering students


The starting point

Engineers make things. They make them out of materials, using processes. What do they need to know to do this successfully? A perspective of the world of materials and processes

An understanding material properties and their origins An ability to select those that best meet requirements of a design Access to information and tools for comparison and selection

The CES EduPack provides the resources to achieve this and gives
students a tool they can use in their later profession (like CAD or FE tools)

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Mechanical engineering

Metals, alloys

Polymers, elastomers

Ceramics, glasses

Hybrids, composites

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Aerospace and motorsport

Metals, alloys

Polymers, elastomers

Ceramics, glasses

Hybrids, composites

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Civil engineering and architecture

Metals, alloys

Polymers, elastomers

Ceramics, glasses

Hybrids, composites

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Bio-engineering

Metals, alloys

Polymers, elastomers

Ceramics, glasses

Hybrids, composites

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Product & industrial design

Metals, alloys

Polymers, elastomers

Ceramics, glasses

Hybrids, composites

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Organizing information: the CES Edu database

Select on material properties


References
data-table

The database

Select on process properties

DATA FOR

Links

Metals & alloys Polymers Ceramics &


glasses

DATA FOR

Materials
data-table

Links

Processes
data-table

Joining Shaping Surface


treatment

Hybrids

Suppliers
data-table

Select on links

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Organising information: the MATERIALS TREE

Universe

Family
Ceramics & glasses

Class

Member

Attributes
Al 6463 Al 6060 Density Al 6061

Steels
Cu-alloys Al-alloys Ti-alloys

Materials
data-table

Metals & alloys Polymers & elastomers Hybrids

Ni-alloys

Zn-alloys

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

Density Mechanical Densityprops. Mechanical props. Thermal props. props. Mechanical Thermal props. Electrical props. Thermal props. Electrical props. Optical props. props. Electrical Optical props. Corrosion props. Optical props. Corrosion props. Documentation Corrosion props. Documentation -- specific Documentation -- specific -- general -- specific -- general -- general

Structured information

Unstructured information

Material records

MFA 2009

Structured information for ABS*


Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) - (CH2-CH-C6H4)n
General Properties
Density Price 1.05 2.1 1.07 Mg/m^3 2.3 US $/kg

Electrical Properties
Conductor or insulator? Good insulator

Optical Properties Mechanical Properties


Young's modulus Yield strength Tensile strength Elongation Hardness - Vickers Fatigue strength Fracture toughness 1.1 18 27 6 6 11 1.2 2.9 50 55 8 15 22 4.2 GPa MPa MPa % HV MPa MPa.m1/2 Transparent or opaque? Opaque

Corrosion and Wear Resistance


Flammability Fresh water Organic solvents Oxidation at 500C Sea water Strong acid Strong alkalis UV Average Good Average Very Poor Good Good Good Good

Thermal Properties
Max Service temp Thermal expansion Specific heat Thermal conductivity 350 70 1500 0.17 370 75 1510 0.24 K 10-6/K J/kg.K W/m.K

+
*Using the CES Level 2 DB

Links to Processes

MFA 2009

Unstructured information for ABS*


What is it? ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene ) is tough, resilient, and easily molded.
It is usually opaque, although some grades can now be transparent, and it can be given vivid colors. ABS-PVC alloys are tougher than standard ABS and, in self-extinguishing grades, are

used for the casings of power tools.

Design guidelines.

ABS has the highest impact resistance of all polymers. It takes color well. Integral metallics are possible (as in GE Plastics' Magix.) ABS is UV resistant for outdoor application if stabilizers are added. It is hygroscopic (may need to be oven dried before thermoforming) and can be damaged by petroleum-based machining oils. ABS can be extruded, compression moulded or formed to sheet that is then vacuum thermoformed. It can be joined by ultrasonic or hot-plate welding, or bonded with polyester, epoxy, isocyanate or nitrile-phenolic adhesives.

Technical notes. ABS is a terpolymer - one made by copolymerising 3 monomers: acrylonitrile, butadiene and syrene. The
acrylonitrile gives thermal and chemical resistance, rubber-like butadiene gives ductility and strength, the styrene gives a glossy surface, ease of machining and a lower cost. In ASA, the butadiene component (which gives poor UV resistance) is replaced by an acrylic ester. Without the addition of butyl, ABS becomes, SAN - a similar material with lower impact resistance or toughness. It is the stiffest of the thermoplastics and has excellent resistance to acids, alkalis, salts and many solvents.

Typical Uses.

Safety helmets; camper tops; automotive instrument panels and other interior components; pipe fittings; homesecurity devices and housings for small appliances; communications equipment; business machines; plumbing hardware; automobile grilles; wheel covers; mirror housings; refrigerator liners; luggage shells; tote trays; mower shrouds; boat hulls; large components for recreational vehicles; weather seals; glass beading; refrigerator breaker strips; conduit; pipe for drain-waste-vent (DWV) systems.

The environment.

The acrylonitrile monomer is nasty stuff, almost as poisonous as cyanide. Once polymerized with styrene it

becomes harmless. ABS is FDA compliant, can be recycled, and can be incinerated to recover the energy it contains.
*Using the CES Level 2 DB
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The world of manufacturing processes

Mould

Granular Polymer Nozzle Cylinder

Primary shaping
Heater Screw

Secondary shaping

Injection moulding
No.8-CMYK-5/01

Machining

Joining

Surface treating

Welding

Painting
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Organising information: the PROCESS TREE

Universe

Family

Class

Member

Attributes
RTM Blow molding Material Injection molding Material
Shape Material Shape Size Range Shape Size Range Min. section Size Range Min. section Tolerance Min. section Tolerance Roughness Tolerance Roughness Economic batch Roughness Economic batch Documentation Economic batch Documentation -- specific Documentation -- specific -- general -- specific -- general -- general

Casting Joining Deformation Moulding Composite Surfacing Powder

Compression Rotation Injection RTM Blow

Processes
data-table

Shaping

Structured information

Rapid prototyping

Unstructured information

Process records

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The CES EduPack

PowerPoint lectures

Software

White papers

Elementary text

Advanced text

Eco text

Industrial design text

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The CES EduPack 09

The CES EduPack 09

Level 1
1st year students: Engineering, Materials Science, Design

Level 2
2nd - 4th year students of Engineering and Materials Science and Design.

Level 3
4th year, masters and research students.
2916 materials, 233 processes

67 materials, 77 processes

98 materials, 109 processes

Materials science

Polymer engineering

Aeronautical engineering

Architecture & civil eng

Eco-audit and design

Natural and biomaterials

The Periodic Table


MFA 2009

Finding information with CES


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CES Help

Polymethyl methacrylate (Acrylic, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrenePMMA) (ABS)

Table:

MaterialUniverse

The material The material

Subset: Edu Level 1

MaterialUniverse

+ + + +

Ceramics and glasses Hybrids: composites etc Metals and alloys Polymers and elastomers

When you think of PMMA, thinkbe transparency. ABS (Acrylonitrile-but can now Acrylic, or PMMA, the thermoplastic that transparent, and it is can be given vivid colors. most closely resembles glass than in transparency ABS-PVC alloys are tougher standard and resistance to weathering. The material adiene-styrene) is tough, resilient, and easily has a long history: discovered in 1872, some first molded. It is usually opaque, although commercialized inin 1933, its first major grades, grades ABS and, self-extinguishing application was cockpit for fighter are used for theas casings ofcanopies power tools. aircraft during the second World War. Composition : (CH2-CH-C6H4)n Composition (CH3-CH2-C-CO-OCH3)n General properties Image Density _ Price

Find what

Titanium Plexiglas Materials

Look in table

Class

Member
1010 2.33 1210 2.56
kg/m^3

General properties

Elastomers

Thermoplastics
Thermosets

Density Mechanical properties Price Young's modulus Yield strength (elastic limit) Mechanical properties Tensile strength Young's modulus Elongation Yield strength (elastic limit) Hardness - Vickers Tensile strength Fatigue strength at 10^7 cycles Compressive strength Fracture toughness Elongation Hardness - Vickers Thermal properties Fatigue strength at 10^7 cycles Maximum service temperature Fracture toughness Thermal conductor or insulator? Thermal conductivity Thermal properties Specific heat capacity Glass temperature Thermal expansion coefficient Maximum service temperature etc

ABS 1.2e3

kg/m^3 USD/kg

Polyamides 1.1 2.5 2.7 Polyethylene PET

Polycarbonate

Polypropylene PMMA PTFE

2.9 USD/kg GPa 18.5 - 51 MPa 27.6 - 55.2 MPa 2.2 3.8 GPa 1.5 - 100 % 54 72 MPa 5.6 - 15.3 HV 48 80 MPa 11.04 - 22.08 MPa 72 1.3e2 MPa 1.186 - 4.289 MPa.m^1/2 2 10 % 16 22 HV * 15 33 MPa 335 K 0.7 1.6 - 350 MPa.m^1/2 Good insulator 0.188 - 0.335 W/m.K - 1919 J/kg.K 3.6e2 1386 4.4e2 K - 234 strain/C 3.2e2 84.6 3.3e2 K

Etc ..

MFA 2009

Adding the science


Age-hardening wrought Al-alloys
alloys rely on age-hardening: a sequence of heat treatment steps that causes the Fatigue strength at 107 cycles precipitation of a nano-scale dispersion of Definitions and measurement. Figure 1 shows a typical tensile stress-strain intermetallics that impede dislocation motion curve. The initial part is linear (Hookes law), and impart strength. and it is elastic, meaning that the strain is Definitions and measurement. General properties recoverable theTitle material returns to its Author Chapter Material subjected to repeated stress cycles Density 2500 - shape 2900 kg/m^3 original when the stress is removed. may fail even when the peak stress is well Callister Materials and Engineering: an Introduction 6 Stresses above the elastic limit cause Price 2.3 - Science 2.86 USD/kg below the tensile strength, or even below permanent deformation or fracture that for yield.Properties Fatigue data are measured Budinski Engineering Materials: and Selection 2 Measurement of Youngs modulus Mechanical properties and presented as curves, where is the Young's modulus Askeland 68 - range 80 GPa over which the stress varies and Nf The Science and Engineering of Materials 6 The origins of moduli. Atoms bond Yield strength (elastic limit) 95 - is the 610 MPa to failure number of cycles together, some some If they Materials: Science, Processing and Design 6, 7 Tensile strength Ashby et al 180 - Engineering, 620 weakly, MPa strongly. enough they form solids; the Elongation 1 bind - strongly 20 % How do fatigue propagate? Ashby & Jones Engineering Volhigher 1 cracks 8, 9 strongerMaterials the bond, the is the melting Fatigue strength at 10^7 cycles 57 - Holes, 210 MPa cracks, and change of section, point of the solid. Think of the bonds as little concentrate stress so Fracture toughness 21springs - surface 35 scratches MPa.m^1/2 (Figure 3). The atoms have an that, even when the sample as a whole equilibrium spacing ; a force pulls them apart remains elastic (the high-cycle regime), Thermal properties a little, to , but when it is released they jump local 640 plasticity occurs. Melting point 495 - to C The damage this back their original spacing. creates accumulates, finally developing into Maximum service temperature 120 200 C . . a tiny crack. The crack propagates in the Thermal conductivity 118 174 W/m.K way shown on the left of Figure 2. . Origins of the modulus Thermal expansion coefficient 22 24 strain/C

Description. The high-strength aluminum

Youngs modulus

Electrical properties
Electrical resistivity 3.8 6 ohm.cm
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Changing the units, customize the system


File Edit View Select Tools Window Help Feature request

Toolbar

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Eco audit

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Supporting info License key

Options

Sheet

Graph

Units

Number

Labels

Preferred Currency

US dollar Metric

Preferred Unit system

Absolute units for temperature Display units for temperature


MFA 2009

Help! White papers, indices, more


Browse Search Select Print
White Papers CES Help Search web
Download

'Teaching Engineering Materials', M.F. Ashby, D. Cebon (PDF, 5.5 MB) 'Teaching Materials and Processes to First and Second Year Students', M.F. Ashby (PDF, 400 KB) 'Materials and Product Design', M.F. Ashby (PDF, 800 KB) 'The CES EduPack Database of Natural and Man-Made Materials', M.F. Ashby (PDF, 1.7 MB) 'The CES Database for Architecture and the Built Environment - background reading', M.F. Ashby, J. Fernandez, and A. Gray (PDF, 680 KB) 'The CES Eco-selector - background reading', M.F. Ashby, A. Miller, F. Rutter, C. Seymour, and U.G.K. Wegst (PDF, 1.5 MB) 'The CES Eco Audit tool a white paper', M.F. Ashby, N. Ball, and C. Bream (PDF)

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MFA 2009

Unit 1: The main points


Classification allows materials data to be organized and retrieved

The data take two broad forms: (a) numeric, non-numeric data that can be structured in a uniform way for all materials (b) documentation, usually in the form of text and images

CES allows rapid access to information by


Browsing Searching Exploring the science

MFA 2009

Pause for demo

MFA 2009

Exercises: Browsing
1.1 Find, by browsing, the Level 1 record for Titanium alloys in Metals and alloys: Non-ferrous
File Edit View Select Tools Window

Browse

Select

Search

1.2 Find the Level 1 record for Phenolics in Polymers and elastomers: Thermosets

Table: Subset:

MaterialUniverse MaterialUniverse Edu Edu Level Level 1 1


MaterialUniverse

1.3 Find the Level 1 record for Alumina in Ceramics and and elastomers: Technical ceramics

+ + + +

Ceramics and glasses Hybrids: composites etc Metals and alloys Polymers and elastomers

1.4 Find the Level 2 record for Age-hardening wrought aluminum alloys in in Metals and alloys: Non-ferrous: Aluminum alloys

1.5 Find the Level 2 record for Plywood in in Hybrids: Natural materials

MFA 2009

Exercises: Searching
1.6 Find, by searching, the record for Polylactide: what is it?
Answer: Polylactide, PLA, is a biodegradable thermoplastic derived from corn.
File Edit View Select Tools Window

Browse

Search

Select

1.7 Find records for materials that are used for Lenses: what are they?
Answer: Silicon, Polyamides (PA), Polycarbonate (PC) and Acrylic (PMMA).

Find what:

Polylactide

Look in table: MaterialUniverse

1.8 Find records for any material that is a Biopolymer.


Answer: Natural rubber (NR); Cellulose polymers (CA); Polylactide (PLA); Poly_something_unpronounceable (PHA, PBA); Starch-based thermoplastics (TPS)

MFA 2009

Exercises: Exploring the science


1.9 How is Fracture toughness measured?
Answer: Definition and measurement. The fracture toughness, , (units: MPa m1/2 or MN/m1/2) measures the resistance of a material to the propagation of a crack. It is measured by loading a sample containing a deliberately-introduced contained crack of length or a surface crack of length (Figure 1 ), recording the tensile stress or the bending load at which the crack suddenly propagates.

Figure 1. Measuring fracture toughness,1C.

1.10 What does Dielectric breakdown mean?


Answer: Definition and measurement. The breakdown potential gradient or dielectric strength (units: MV/m) is the electrical potential gradient at which an insulator breaks down and a damaging surge of current like a lightning strike flows through it.

Figure 2. Breakdown involves a cascade of electrons like a lightening strike.

1.11 What is meant by the CO2 footprint of a material?


Answer: The CO2 footprint per unit weight, using PET as an example, is

CO 2 PET

Mass of CO 2 directly ari sin g from PET production per year Mass of PET shipped per year

MFA 2009

End of Unit 1

MFA 2009