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What is “Chain of Custody” ?

• Chain of Custody is a legal term that refers to the ability to guarantee the identity and integrity of the specimen from collection through to reporting of the test results. It is a process used to maintain and document the chronological history of the specimen. (Documents should include name or initials of the individual collecting the specimen, each person or entity subsequently having custody of it, the date the specimen was collected or transferred, employer or agency, specimen number, patient's or employee's name, and a brief description of the specimen.) A secure chain of custody, together with the analytical techniques used by the Regional Laboratory for Toxicology to confirm the identity of drugs present in a specimen, leads to the production of a legally defensible report.

The chain of custody is the path which evidences take from the forest / crime scene to the Wildlife Forensic Lab.

provide factual information that is relevant to a legal proceeding. to reconstruct events that provide information that is relevant to had factual taken place at a (crime) scene and a legal proceeding. biochemistry. to reconstruct events that such as physics. . chemistry. biology had and taken place at a (crime) scene and biochemistry.What is Forensic Science? What is Forensic Science? Forensic science is the application of principles and methods of all the traditional Forensic science is the application of sciences. such as methods physics. chemistry. biology principles and of all the traditional and sciences.

also known as Locard's theory. they mutually contaminate each other with minute fragments of material. was postulated by 20th century forensic scientist Edmond Locard. This is because of Locard's Principle: "There is no such thing as a clean contact between two objects. He was a pioneer in forensic science as formulated the basic principle of forensic science: "Every contact leaves a trace". When two bodies or objects come into contact. • Locard's exchange principle states that "with contact between two items. there will be an exchange" • Every crime scene contains evidence of the perpetrator of the crime.“Locard’s Principle” • The Locard exchange principle." .

Branches of Forensic Sciences • Forensic Chemistry: • Forensic chemists use their expertise to help law enforcement by analyzing trace evidence found at crime scenes. . Forensic chemists also calibrate breathalyzer machines and testify in drunken driving cases about the devices' accuracy. which are analyzed for poisons and drugs. This evidence can include fingerprints taken from the scene and compared with the prints of suspects. and urine and blood.

deals with diseases and how they affect the body. . the police are able to decide if they should pursue a killer or close the case because someone actually died of natural causes. where scientists determine the cause and manner of someone's death by examining organs. Based on this information.• Forensic Biology: • Forensic biology. or pathology. blood and urine. Forensic pathologists help law enforcement through autopsies.

Forensic Psychologist deals with psychological and other cases like. These types of cases can revolve around issues--such as involuntary hospitalization. Narco-Analysis.Brain Fingerprinting.• Forensic Behavioral Sciences / Forensic Psychology: • Forensic psychologists and psychiatrists can work in criminal cases where issues like a defendant's fitness to stand trial. Lie Detection etc . whether a patient can refuse treatment and disability claims. testify or decline representation are in dispute. They are also called to render opinions in civil cases that deal with patients' rights. Polygraphy.

forensic anthropologists will use skulls to reconstruct the face of a victim. and the rendering is released to the public to generate leads. forensic anthropologists can determine the gender. .• Forensic Anthropology: • Forensic anthropologists work in cases that involve tragedies such as terrorist attacks. plane crashes and natural disasters when remains need to be identified. Through their examinations. In some cases. race and size of a victim. which helps police narrow down that person's identity.

or components of the document. The most common type of examination involves handwriting wherein the examiner tries to address concerns about potential authorship. The primary purpose of questioned/forensic document examination is to answer questions about a disputed document using a variety of scientific processes and methods. to a set of known standards. . Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document.• Questioned Document and Handwriting Examination: • Questioned document examination (QDE) is the forensic science discipline pertaining to documents that are (or may be) in dispute in a court of law.

evaluation and proper handling of dental evidence in order to assist law enforcement officers and in civil & criminal proceedings. . reconstruct faces from skulls as well as connect the crime scene with whatever little evidence is available from the scene. The role of such an expert is to identify bodies and skeletal remains from dental records.• Forensic Dentistry / Forensic Odontology: Deals with the collection.

• Forensic linguists / Voice Identification: Forensic linguists analyse the content of written or oral communication to identify the culprit and they can determine whether two communications are from the same person. . This is found useful in various cases involving matching notes and handwritten contents.

. It requires meticulous and painstaking efforts in gathering information about finger prints from the scene of crime.• Forensic Fingerprint / Dactyloscopy: Dactyloscopy is the scientific study of fingerprints. It also involves the identification of fingerprints and their ability to categorically link suspects to or exclude suspects from a crime scene. Fingerprints is perhaps the most well known of the forensic sciences.

. fire investigations. and a variety of wrongful injury cases. Engineers are involved in failure analysis. causes and origins of fires or explosions etc. accident reconstruction.• Forensic Engineer / Engineering: These experts deal with traffic accidents.

• Forensic Accounting: • Forensic accounting is the specialty practice area of accountancy that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigation. construction. All of the larger accounting firms. personal injury claims. "Forensic" means "suitable for use in a court of law". there may be further sub-specializations: some forensic accountants may. often have to give expert evidence at the eventual trial. for example. also referred to as forensic auditors or investigative auditors. as well as many medium-sized and boutique firms. and it is to that standard and potential outcome that forensic accountants generally have to work. have specialist forensic accounting departments. . Forensic accountants. or royalty audits. fraud. just specialize in insurance claims. Within these groups.

parental testing and rape investigation.• DNA profiling: • DNA profiling (also called DNA testing. DNA profiling should not be confused with full genome sequencing. or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals on the basis of their respective DNA profiles. . DNA typing. for example. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup. It is used in. which can also be used as the person's identifier.

albeit infrequently.g. particularly in cases where foul play is suspected. blood. or death resulting from violence. such as how long the person has been dead. Autopsy (see post-mortem examination) is often used to determine the cause of death. mental illness. Forensic medicine has also become increasingly important in cases involving rape. this technique may also be used to identify the body of a victim. poison). . which can help trace the killing. Modern techniques use such specimens as semen.• Medical Jurisprudence or Forensic Medicine: • Medical Jurisprudence or Forensic Medicine. a technique which may be used in the insanity defense (see insanity). injury. gunshot wound. and hair samples of the criminal found in the victim's bodies. It is typically involved in cases concerning blood relationship. Postmortem examination can determine not only the immediate agent of death (e. The establishment of serious mental illness by a licensed psychologist can be used in demonstrating incompetency to stand trial. which can be compared to the defendant's genetic makeup through a technique known as DNA fingerprinting. the application of medical science to legal problems. but may also yield important contextual information.

pharmacology and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of death. A toxicological analysis can be done to various kinds of samples. poisoning.• Forensic toxicology: • Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry. The primary concern for forensic toxicology is not the legal outcome of the toxicological investigation or the technology utilised. and drug use. . but rather the obtaining and interpreting of the results.

.• Cell Phone / Mobile Phone Forensics: • Mobile Device Forensics and Sim Card Forensics etc are sub-branches of digital forensics relating to recovery of digital evidence or data from a mobile device under forensically sound conditions. The phrase mobile device usually refers to mobile phones however can also relate to any digital device that has both internal memory and communication ability.

IP Tracking etc .Email Examination. Sometimes they are just asked to recover data that was carelessly erased or to recover family pictures from a hard disk drive that was damaged in a power surge. damaged or otherwise obscured sources.• Computer Forensics / Cyber Forensics: • Computer forensics is an exciting part of the IT field. formatted. Many times their skills are called on by law enforcement to recover data that can be used as evidence in a legal case. Cyber Forensic Experts deals with many cyber crime cases like. Video Examination. where computer experts with specialized skills recover data from erased.