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Automotive Power Train
In a vehicle, the mechanism that transmits the power of the
engine to the wheels or tracks and accessory equipment is called the power train. In a simple situation, a set of gears or a chain and sprocket could perform this task,
for such simple operating conditions.
but automotive and construction vehicles are not usually designed
They are designed to have great pulling power,
to move at high speeds, to travel in reverse as well as forward, and to operate on rough terrain as well as smooth roads.
To meet these widely varying demands, vehicles require
several additional accessory units. The power trains of automobiles and light trucks driven by the two rear wheels consist of a clutch, a transmission, a propeller shaft, a differential, and driving axles
The power trains of automobiles and light trucks driven by
the two rear wheels consist of a clutch, a transmission, a propeller shaft, a differential, and driving axles
A clutch is a mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be engaged and disengaged. Device for quickly and easily connecting or disconnecting a pair of rotating coaxial shafts.
Clutches are usually placed between the driving motor and the input shaft to a machine Provide a convenient means for starting and stopping the machine Permitting the driving motor or engine to be started in an unloaded state (as in an automobile). Mechanical clutches provide either a positive (no-slip) or a frictiondependent drive Centrifugal clutches provide automatic engagement.
An overrunning clutch transmits torque in one direction only and permits the driven shaft of a machine to freewheel (continue rotating after the driver stops); On “Bicycles” such clutches permit the rider to coast without moving the pedals.
If both shafts to be connected can be stopped or made to move relatively slowly, a positive-type mechanical clutch may be used. If an initially stationary shaft is to be driven by a moving shaft, friction surfaces must be interposed to absorb the relative slippage until the speeds are the same. Likewise, friction slippage allows one shaft to stop after the clutch is released. When positive connection of one shaft with another in a given position is needed, a positive clutch is used.
When the axial pressure of the clutch faces on each other serves to transmit torque instead of the mating shape of their parts, the clutch operates by friction. This friction clutch is usually placed between an engine and a load to be driven; when the friction surfaces of the clutch are engaged, The speed of the driven load gradually approaches that of the engine until the two speeds are the same. A friction clutch is necessary for connecting a rotating shaft of a machine to a stationary shaft so that it may be brought up to speed without shock and transmit torque for the development of useful work. The three common designs for friction clutches, combining axial and radial types, Cone clutches, disk clutches, and rim clutches.
In a cone clutch, the surfaces are sections of a pair of cones. The disk clutch consists essentially of one or more friction disks connected to a driven shaft by splines.
A rim clutch has surface elements that apply pressure to the rim externally or internally.
In the overrunning type of clutch, the driven shaft can run faster than the driving shaft. This action permits freewheel as the driving shaft slows down or another source of power is applied. Effectively this is a friction pawl-and-ratchet drive, wherein balls or rollers become wedgedbetween the sleeve and recessed pockets machined in the hub The clutch does not slip when the second shaft is driven, and is released automatically when the second shaft runs faster than the driver. The centrifugal clutch employs centrifugal force from the speed of rotation. This type of clutch is not normally used because it becomes unwieldy and unsafe with increasing size. Clutch action is also produced by hydraulic couplings, with a smoothness not possible with a mechanical clutch. Automatic transmissions in automobiles represent a fundamental
There are many different vehicle clutch designs but most are based on one or more friction discs, pressed tightly together or against a flywheel using springs. The friction material is very similar to the material used in brake shoes and pads and contained asbestos in the past. Clutches found in heavy duty applications such as trucks and competition cars use ceramic clutches that have a greatly increased friction coefficient, however these have a "grabby" action and are unsuitable for road cars. The spring pressure is released when the clutch pedal is depressed thus either pushing or pulling the diaphragm of the pressure plate, depending on type, and the friction plate is released and allowed to rotate freely. While engaging the clutch, the engine speed may need to be increased from idle, using the manual throttle, so that the engine does not stall (although In most cars, especially diesels, there is enough power at idling speed that the car can move although fine movements with the clutch are needed). However, raising the engine speed too high will cause excessive clutch plate wear and cause a harsh, jerky start. This kind of
Wet and dry clutches
A 'wet clutch' is immersed in a cooling
lubricating fluid, which also keeps the surfaces clean and gives smoother performance and longer life.
Since the surfaces of a wet clutch can be slippery (as with a motorcycle clutch bathed in engine oil), stacking multiple clutch disks can compensate for slippage.
A 'dry clutch', as the name implies, is not
bathed in fluid that robs it of some energy.
Most Moto Guzzi, Ducati, and BMW motorcycles typically use a dry clutch much like a car.
Clutch Operation in Automobiles
In a car, it is operated by the left-most pedal using hydraulics or a cable connection from the pedal to the clutch mechanism. Movement of a foot pedal operates the clutch. When the driver pushes the clutch pedal down, the clutch disconnects or disengages from the engine flywheel. No engine power can flow through the engine flywheel to the transmission shafts. When the driver release the clutch pedal, the clutch engages. This allows power to flow through. Even though the clutch may physically be located very close to the pedal, Such remote means of actuation are necessary to eliminate the effect of slight engine movement, engine mountings being flexible by design. With a rigid mechanical linkage, smooth engagement would be near-impossible, because engine movement inevitably occurs as the drive is "taken up". No pressure on the pedal means that the clutch plates are engaged (driving), Depressing the pedal will disengage the clutch plates,
allowing the driver to shift gears.
In recent years, servo actuation in traditional gear shift systems on commercial cars has gained increasingly attention, especially on the European market. The system consists in a manual gear shift device with added actuators, with an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) for clutch and gear control. When compared with automatic gear shift systems, the servo actuated mechanical solution offers some advantages in terms of overall system costs (simpler system) and fuel saving (higher mechanical efficiency). Significant fuel savings of 4-5 % on standard driving cycle are reported, in agreement with demands from market and regulations.
One drawback associated with this system is the
interruption of traction torque occurring during the shifting process,
when the clutch has to be disengaged to exit the
current gear and entering the new one. To achieve acceptable comfort, this lack of traction should last as short as possible, typically below 300 ms. On the other hand, the torque transmitted to the driveline during clutch opening and closing heavily depends on the clutch position. To prevent unpleasant oscillation due to driveline elasticity, the transmitted torque and hence the clutch position must be controlled to accurately track given references. For this reason, the clutch control sub-system is a crucial component of the servo actuated gear shift
An automotive clutch is used to connect and disconnect the engine and manual (hand-shifted) transmission or transaxle. The clutch is located between the back of the engine and the front of the transmission. The clutch is the first drive train component powered by the engine crankshaft. The clutch lets the driver control power flow between the engine and the transmission or transaxle.
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