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Reverse Engineering

Reverse engineering typically measuring an existing object surface or solid model can be utilizing the advances in technologies. starts with so that a created by CAD/CAM

Application Areas
•It is often necessary to produce a copy of a part, when no original drawings or manufacturing documentation are available.
•In other cases we may want to re-engineer an existing past, when analysis and modification are required to construct a new improved product. •In some cases it is necessary only to extract 2D-profile data from the model as the complete part may be efficiently modelled using these profiles and a surface CAD/CAM system. •Potential application area can be found in the injection moulding industry (rapid tooling, recovery broken moulds or duplicating a mould), and other fields such as medical and chemical industry, film industry, and toy industry.

Phases of Reverse Engineering
The whole Reverse Engineering process can be divided into four steps: 1. Scanning – Digitizing 2. Processing captured data 3. Surface creation (*.stl or CAD-surface) 4. CAM or technician documentation

Scanning .

Processing of Captured data .


DATA Acquisition .

3D Scanning computer-aided design (CAD) digital model physical object reverse engineering/ 3D scanning shape color material surface reconstruction .

Why 3D scanning?  Digital models for many objects don’t exist.    reverse engineering (Boeing 737X) archiving virtual environments  Traditional design (using clay)   car industry computer animation  3D faxing! .

clay) virtual environments .Surface reconstruction points P surface S    reverse engineering traditional design (wood.

P.r.Surface reconstruction problem Given: points P sampled from unknown surface U Goal: reconstruct a surface S approximating U     accurate (w.t. and U!) concise .

and sharp features . geometry.Why is this difficult?  Points P   unorganized noisy  Surface S   arbitrary. unknown topological type sharp features  Algorithm must infer:  topology.

Find piecewise smooth surface.3-Phase reconstruction method points Goals: Find initial surface of correct topological type. phase 1 initial mesh phase 2 optimized mesh phase 3 Detect sharp features automatically optimized subdivision surface . Improve its accuracy and conciseness.

000 points 3 .Example 1 2 13.

Phase 1: Initial surface estimation  If U were known. it would satisfy U = Z(d) = { p | d(p)=0 } . where d(p) is the signed distance of p to U U d(p)? + + + + + + + ++ + + – – – ++ + –– – + – – d(p)? – – + + – + + + + + + + + .

P S Estimate d from P Extract Z(d) .

Phase 1 (cont’d)  How to estimate d? orient them consistently compute tangent planes .

Phase 1 (cont’d)  How to extract Z(d)? run “marching cubes” .

initial mesh Minitial  Output: optimized mesh M. minimizing E(M) = Edistance + Ecomplexity .Phase 2: Mesh optimization 2  Input: data points P.

Phase 2 (cont’d)  Optimization over:  the number of vertices  their connectivity  their positions  consider any mesh of the same topological type as Minitial .

optimize geometry Greedy approach:   consider local perturbations accept if DE(M)<0 edge collapse edge split edge swap .Phase 2 (cont’d) Nested optimization:  optimize connectivity  for fixed connectivity.

Inc.000 points using 182.Phase 2: Results using 31. .000 points from Digibotics.000 points from Technical Arts Co. using 13.

Phase 3: Piecewise smooth surface 3 piecewise planar  piecewise smooth surface .

Subdivision surfaces M0 M1 M2 S=M tagged control mesh .

apply perturbation if DE(M)<0 .Phase 3 (cont’d)  Generalize phase 2 optimization: edge collapse  edge split edge swap edge tag Again.

Phase 3: Results .

Related work volumetric representation phase 1 initial mesh phase 2 alpha shapes optimized mesh phase 3 optimized subdivision surface NURBS surface CAD models .


Scanned Surface – Point Cloud Data from 3D object .

Steps Involved in Reverse engineering Import the Polygon Model Method for Creating CAD Model 1. Modeling Method 2. Patching Modeling Creating Cross sections Export the section as iges or step in cad software Patching Creating Nurb patches through Nurb patches into Nur curves Nurb Surface into Nur Export the Nurb model as iges or Cad Model step in cad software Inspect the model for variation .

Creating through curves .

NURB surface generation .

Comparison & Validation of Scanned surface with 3D mo NURB Model 3D-Cad model .

Deviation check – Scanned Surface & 3D Model .