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Basic Concepts

Introduction

**An electric circuit is an interconnection of electrical elements. Functions:
**

To transfer energy from one point to another.

Basic concepts:

**Charge. Current. Voltage. Power. Circuit elements. Energy.
**

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Charge – q(t)

**Basic quantity in an electric circuit. Defined as an electrical property of materials.
**

Exist as negative (electron) and positive (proton) charges. Measured in Coulombs (C). 1 electron = -1.602*10-19C.

**Positive and negative charges move in different direction.
**

Creates electric current. Consider electric current as movement of positive charge.

**Charge may be constant/varying.
**

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Current – i(t)

Defined as the charge flow rate. Measured in Ampere (A). Current may be constant/varying.

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Voltage – v(t)

**Defined to be the charge rate of doing work.
**

Energy required to move a unit charge through an element.

Measured in volts (V). Voltage may be constant/varying.

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Power – p(t)

**Defined to be the time rate of doing work.
**

Measured in watts (W).

**Power can be absorbed or supplied by circuit elements.
**

Positive power element absorbs power. Negative power element supplies power. ‘Sign’ determined by voltage and current.

**An ideal circuit:
**

∑Psupplied + ∑ Pabsorbed = 0.

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Energy

Defined as the capacity to do work. Measured in joules (J).

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Circuit Elements

An element is the basic building block of a circuit. Electric circuit is interconnecting of the elements. Types of elements:

Active elements Capable of generating energy (i.e. batteries, generators). Passive elements Absorbs energy (i.e. resistors, capacitors and inductors). Voltage and current sources the most important active elements.

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Source

Divided into:

Independent source Does not depend to other elements to supply voltage or current. Dependent source Reverse of independent.

**Constant voltage source:
**

Voltage same for all elements.

**Constant current source:
**

**Current same throughout the circuits.
**

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Examples

Determine the current flowing through an element if the charge flow is given by q(t)=(9t2+2t-2)C. Find the charge q(t) flowing through a device if the current (i(t))=(2t+5) mA and q(0)=0. The charge entering a certain element is shown below. Determine current at:

t= 1 ms t= 6 ms t= 10ms

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Examples

Given the graph, plot the corresponding current. Calculate total charge that pass through an element at:

t = 1s t = 3s t = 5s

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Examples

Find the power absorbed by each of the elements.

**Assignment 1: download @ http://staff.edu.my/hadibahmr
**

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