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LIMIT STATE DESIGN

OF
STEEL STRUCTURES
BY CANADIAN CODE

CAN/CSA S16-01 (9
th
Edition)
PRESENTED BY : ABHIJIT PARKHI
PART 1 :
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
 LIMIT STATE DESIGN
 MATERIALS USED
 COMMON SECTIONS
 LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS
 TYPES OF ANALYSIS
 SECOND ORDER ANALYSIS
 CLASSIFICATION OF SECTIONS
LIMIT STATES :
LIMIT STATES CONCERNING TO SAFETY -
ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES :
• Strength and Stability
• Overturning
• Sliding
• Fatigue
LIMIT STATES CONCERNING TO SERVICEABILITY -
SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES :
• Deflection
• Vibration
• Permanent Deformation
OBJECTIVE OF LIMIT STATE DESIGN
• Keep the probability of any limit state being reached below a
certain value previously established for a given type of structure.
THIS IS ACHIEVED BY THE USE OF ---
• LOAD FACTORS
• RESISTANCE FACTORS
MATERIALS USED :
• STRUCTURAL STEEL : CAN/CSA G40.20/G40.21 or ASTM A992
“W” and “WT” BEAMS : 350W (Yield Strength 350 MPa)
CHANNELS, ANGLES AND PLATES : 300 MPa
• TYPES OF STEELS AVAILABLE
W, WT, R , A , AT , Q , QT
• BOLTS :
ASTM A325M, A490M : FOR CONNECTION BOLTS
ASTM F1554 : FOR ANCHOR BOLTS (36 ksi, 55 ksi, 105 ksi)
• WELDS :
CSA W58 – WELDING ELECRODES
CSA W59 - WELDED STEEL CONSTRUCTION (METAL ARC WELDING)
Common Hot rolled Shapes and Nomenclature :
• Rolled Shapes :-
W Sections - W1000x222
WT - Half Cut W sections („T‟ sections)
HP Sections - HP360x108 (Almost Equal depth and width)
M and MC - Misc. I beams and Channels
C - Channels
SLB - Super light Beams (SLB100x5.4)
S and SC - I beams and channels with tapered inside face of flange
HSS - Hollow Sections both rectangular and circular
PIPE - DN15, DN20 (Nominal Dia)
• WWF and WRF SHAPES
(Welded Wide Flange and Welded Reduced Flange)

WWF500x197 : Depth - 500 mm
Mass - 197 Kg/m
LOADS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS
• Principle Load Factors : -
These factors depend upon the degree of accurate prediction. These are applied
both for permanent loads and variable loads when variable loads are primary.
• Basic Loads
D - Dead Load
L - Live Load
W - Wind Load
E - Earthquake Load
T - Temperature Load
• Companion Load Factor : -
These factors are applied to second variable load or rare load depend upon the
degree of uncertainty of the variable loads acting together in their highest
magnitude.
Basic Loads and Load factors shall be referred to NBCC or ABC.
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION
• SIMPLE CONSTRUCTION :
Braced frames

• RIGIDLY CONNECTED AND CONTINUOUS CONSTRUCTION :
Moment (Rigid) frames
• SEMI-RIGID CONSTRUCTION :
Angles between the connected members change under applied loading
and redistribute moments between the members while maintaining
sufficient capacity to resist Lateral loads.
The design of structures shall be based on either Linear or non-linear
analysis.
TYPE OF ANALYSIS :
• ELASTIC ANALYSIS :
The forces and moments can be determined by elastic analysis assuming
that under a particular Load case all the members behave elastically.
• PLASTIC ANALYSIS :
The forces and moments can be determined by plastic analysis, provided
that the following conditions are satisfied :
PLASIC ANALYSIS (Conditions required) :
• Steel used => Fy <= 0.85 Fu and exhibits the stress-strain characteristics
necessary to achieve moment redistribution.

• Width-Thickness ratios meet the requirements of Class 1 sections

• Members are sufficiently braced laterally

• Web Stiffeners are provided under point load where plastic hinge may form.

• Splices in beams / columns are designed for 1.1 x Max moment or 0.25Mp
whichever is greater

• No impact or Fatigue

• Influence of in-elastic deformation is taken into account.
In-short all the limit states of failure to be eliminated except that of plastic failure.
STABILITY EFFECTS (SECOND ORDER ANALYSIS) :
Methods : 1. Direct second order elastic analysis – computer program
2. Amplification of first order analysis

• Second order Analysis by computer program :
Based on Equilibrium of deformed structure – Storey shear method
Reduction in Column stiffness - Geometric stiffness method

• Applying amplification factor to First order analysis
(
(
¸
(

¸
A
÷
=
¿
¿
h V
C
U
f
f f
1
1
2
M
f
= M
fg
+ U
2
M
ft

T
f
= T
fg
+ U
2
T
ft

Explanation of terms used
• What is second order analysis ? - P D effect
STABILITY EFFECTS (SECOND ORDER ANALYSIS) :
Notional Loads :-
• Concept of Notional Loads

• This is introduced to transform bifurcation problem of sway buckling to
bending strength problem. This is important when the failure is initiated
not by lateral loads but by sway buckling due to vertical loads.

• To be applied at each storey

• Value = 0.005 x Factored Gravity loads for that Storey

• To be combined with all load cases

• All structures shall be subjected to this notional load
STABILITY EFFECTS (SECOND ORDER ANALYSIS) :
• Unsymmetrical frame with gravity loading
• Symmetrical frame with Gravity Loading
• Lateral Loading
• How to calculate Non-Sway moments, Sway moments and usage of
Notional loads for following cases :-
STABILITY OF MEMBERS :
Function of stability bracing –
1. Lateral bracing system for columns
2. Torsional bracing system for beams
3. Lateral and torsional bracing system for beams or beam
columns
For lateral Bracing, the bracing location
can be anywhere long a cross section
Bracing
Bracing
Bracing
COLUMN BRACING – To avoid buckling in weak axis
STABILITY OF MEMBERS :
Bracing
BEAM BRACING – To avoid LTB
Torsional Bracing for Beam
Shear plate
connection
Beam or Bracing
brace near to compression
flange of beam
STABILITY OF MEMBERS :
Simplified Analysis :
Bracing system shall be designed for the force of 0.02 x factored Axial
compressive force in the main member at brace point.
Detailed Analysis :

1) Second Order Analysis
2) Direct Method
EFFECTIVE LENGTHS AND SLENDERNESS RATIO :
• MEMBERS IN COMPRESSION

Effective length factor K depends upon the failure mode of the member.

In-plane Bending failure : For this mode K can be taken as 1.0

Out-of plane Buckling failure : for this mode, the factor K can be calculated
by Appendix F and G.

Value of K is taken as 1.0 because second order effects are considered
by using P-Delta analysis and material & geometric nonlinearity is considered
in terms or notional load to arrive at design forces and moments.
• Slenderness Ratios Limits : KL/r

For compression Members < 200

For Tension Members < 300
CLASSIFICATION OF SECTIONS :
• The classification for the sections depend upon width-Thickness
ratio for the elements in compression.
• CLASS 1 : (Plastic design sections)
Attain full Plastic moment capacity and allow subsequent
redistribution of moments.
• CLASS 2 : (Compact sections)
Attain full plastic moment capacity but need not allow for
redistribution of moments.
• CLASS 3 : (non-Compact sections)
Attain full yield moment capacity.
• CLASS 4 :
The elements of the section will generally fail by local buckling.
Please refer to Table 1 for the limiting values of width-thickness ratio.
The table showing width-thickness ratios have been split now
for ease of use.
Width-Thickness Ratio :
Table 1 : Ratios for elements in axial compression

Table 2 : Ratios for Flexural compression
(Class I, II and III Sections)

Width-Thickness Ratio :
Width-Thickness Ratio :
CLASSIFICATION OF SECTIONS :
Explanation based on following behavior
• Flexural compression
• Axial compression
• Flexural + Axial compression
• Local buckling for Class 4 sections
PART 2 :
MEMBER DESIGN
 TENSION MEMBERS
 COMPRESSION MEMBERS (COLUMNS)
 FLEXURAL MEMBERS (BEAMS)
 AXIAL + FLEXURE MEMBERS (BEAM-COLUMN)
DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
CONCEPT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES :
Stresses developed due to non-uniform cooling after rolling, due to
different surface areas are called as residual stresses. (material
nonlinearity)
For I beams, flange tips and middle web are subjected to compression
and the joints are subjected to Tension.
f
rc
f
rc
f
rc
f
rc
f
rt
f
rt
f
rc
DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
RESIDUAL STRESSES FOR TENSION MEMBERS
Lowering of proportional limit.
Effect of Residual Stresses on Stress-Strain Curve
Stress
Fy/2
Fy
Residual strain
Strain
Flat Yielding steel
Gradually
Yielding steel
In-elastic range
Proportional
limit
DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
 LIMIT STATE OF YIELDING
Yielding on Gross Cross Section
F
t
< T
r
= u A
g
F
y

u = 0.9
 LIMIT STATE OF FRACTURE
Fracture on net area (or effective net area)
F
t
< T
r
= 0.85u (A
ne
or A
n
)F
u
DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
 NET AREA :
1) Net area in Tension = An = w
n
* t
2) Net area in shear = 0.6 * L
n
t
3) For a segment inclined to force
An = w
n
* t + s
2
t / 4g
Hole dia can be taken as 2 mm more than bolt dia.
Total net area of each segment along a potential failure path :
DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
EFFECTIVE NET AREA A
ne
’:
 Concept of Shear Lag :
Shear lag reduces the effectiveness of Tension member that are not connected
directly to the gusset plate or anchorage. The effectiveness of the members depend
on the Length of the connection.
When force is transferred through some but not all cross sectional
elements of a member, the net area in this force transfer region get reduced.
A
ne
= A
n
x Factor
DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
REDUCTION FACTORS FOR BOLTED CONNECTION :
REDUCTION FACTORS FOR WELDED CONNECTION :
2 Any shape
1.5w > l > w 0.75
1
Longitudinal
4 Any Shape Longitudinal
W, M, S shapes and T's from such
shapes
1
Transverse
Ae shall be taken as
area of connected
elements
3 Any Shape 2w > l > 1.5w 0.5wt + 0.25Lt Longitudinal
-
l > 2 w
SR
No
Description Weld Length Reduction Factor
Weld
direction
w.r.t. force
w - width of the plate
l - Length of the weld
Reduction factor for single line weld :
1) When L >= w
A
ne
= (1 - x/L) wt
x = eccentricity of weld with respect to centroid of the element
L = Length of the weld in the direction of loading

2) When w > L
A
ne
= 0.5 Lt

RESISTANCE FACTORS :
RESISTANCE FACTORS
Structural Steel | 0.9
Concrete |
c
0.65
Bolts |
b
0.8
Bearing |
br
0.8
Anchor Rods |
ar
0.67
Weld Metal |
w
0.67
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
 Types of Columns and Modes of Failure :
Modes of Failure :
• Euler Buckling or Elastic buckling
• Yielding
• In-elastic buckling
 Euler buckling (Elastic buckling) :
Euler Buckling load is that load at which a STRAIGHT, CENTRALLY
LOADED HOMOGENEOUS column becomes unstable although there
is no apparent moment to initiate bending. This theory is only applicable
in Elastic Range of Column.
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
 Euler buckling (Elastic buckling) :
2
2
L
EI
PE
t
=
Euler load is given by :
2
) / (
2
r L
E
FE
t
=
The same expression can be re-written as :
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
 Yielding :
Short and stocky columns would fail by yielding without
undergoing any buckling.
 In-elastic Buckling of columns :
• This is applicable for materials which yield gradually after reaching
proportional limit.
• Hot rolled Sections undergo in-elastic buckling due to the presence
of residual stresses.
• Due to the presence of residual Stresses in members the
proportional limit comes down and column Buckles inelastically.
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
RESIDUAL STRESSES FOR COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Reduction in Moment of inertia.
Hence undergoes in-elastic Buckling.
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
In this code, the limit state of failure for compression members
is named as flexural buckling. This buckling can be either elastic or in-elastic.

Factored Axial Compressive Resistance Cr :
( )
E
F
r
KL
Where
AF C
y
n
n
y r
2
/ 1
2
1
t
ì
ì |
=
÷ =
÷
Parameter value n is based on SSRC (Structural Stability Research council)
developed buckling curve depend on rolled shape of the cross section. This
parameter value take care for material imperfection (residual stress) and
Geometric imperfection (out of straightness of the member within permitted limit)
to carry out buckling strength of the member. This primarily depend on rolled
shape of the section and about which axis flexural buckling of the member take
place.
n = 1.34 for W shapes
n = 2.24 for WWF shapes
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Doubly symmetric shapes (e.g. W shapes) conforming to Class 1, 2 or 3 undergo
Flexural buckling. The formula for axial compressive resistance is given by :
= F
y
/F
e
Torsional or Torsional flexural buckling :
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
The sections including Channels, angles, Tees etc shall be checked for
Torsional-flexural buckling as per Canadian code.
W Section
CG
Shear
center
WT Section
CG
Shear
center
Torsional buckling
Flexural Torsional buckling
CG
Shear
center
Single angle
Torsional or Torsional flexural buckling :
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Doubly symmetric sections : Fe is least of F
ex
, F
ey
and F
ez
Singly symmetric sections with Y axis as axis of symmetry:
Fe is least of F
ex
, and F
eyz
Where
Torsional or Torsional flexural buckling :
DESIGN OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS
For asymmetric sections : Fe is the smallest root of

Class 4 members in compression :
1. Effective area calculated using reduced element widths meeting the width
to thickness of a Class 3 section or
2. Effective yield stress determined from the width to thickness of a Class 3
section
Slenderness ratio shall be calculated based on gross dimensions.
DESIGN OF MEMBERS FOR SHEAR
Factored Shear Resistance Vr : For I beams
34 . 5 K Use : webs d unstiffene For
439 for 66 . 0
where
shapes) Rolled - (dw Area Shear A
v
w
=
s =
=
=
y
v
y s
s w r
F
k
w
h
F F
Where
F A V |
DESIGN OF BEAMS (FOR FLEXURE)
LATERALLY SUPPORTED MEMBERS :
For uniaxial moment about principal axes :
Factored Moment of Resistance Mr is given by :
1) Class 1 and Class 2 :- Mr = | Z Fy = | Mp
2) Class 3 :- Mr = | S Fy = | My
Z - Plastic Section modulus Mp = Plastic Moment Capacity
S - Elastic Section modulus My = Elastic moment capacity
DESIGN OF BEAMS (FOR FLEXURE)
3) Class 4 Section :
i) Flange and web both Class 4 :- Use CSA std S136 (Fy‟ applicable to
cold formed section)
ii) Flanges Class 3 and Webs class 4 : - Refer Clause 14 concerning to
Built up beams.
iii) The Sections whose flanges are of Class 4 and webs are of
Class 3 then Moment resistance can be calculated by using
effective yield stress determined from the width-thickness
ratio meeting Class 3 requirements. OR finding out the effective
sectional properties from Class 3 requirements and using the same in
all the formulae.
DESIGN OF BEAMS (FOR FLEXURE)
LATERALLY UN-SUPPORTED MEMBERS :
For uniaxial moment about principal axes :
Factored Moment of Resistance Mr is given by :
1) doubly symmetric Class 1 and 2 sections
vely Conservati 0 . 1
M 67 . 0 M When
28 . 0
1 15 . 1
M 0.67 M When
2
2
2
p u
p u
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
s
<
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
>
e
t t e
|
| |
W Y y r
p
u
p
p r
C I
L
E
GJ EI
L
M
M
M
M
M M
M
u
DESIGN OF BEAMS (FOR FLEXURE)
2) doubly symmetric Class 3 sections and Channels :
vely Conservati 0 . 1
M 67 . 0 M When
28 . 0
1 15 . 1
M 0.67 M When
2
2
2
y u
y u
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
s
<
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
>
e
t t e
|
| |
W Y y u
u r
y
u
y
y r
C I
L
E
GJ EI
L
M
M M
M
M
M
M M
3) For Bi-axial Bending : M
fx
/M
rx
+ M
fy
/M
ry
<= 1
DESIGN OF BEAMS (FOR FLEXURE)
MODES OF BEAM FAILURE :
1. YIELDING
2. LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING
3. LOCAL BUCKLING
For Class 1 and Class 2 sections only first 2 limit states are applicable.
For Class 3 sections also only first 2 limit states are applicable. The only
difference is instead of Mp, My shall be used.
For Class 4 sections, all the limit states are applicable.
DESIGN OF BEAMS (FOR FLEXURE)
Concept of Lateral Torsional Buckling
The shapes like I beams and channels are primarily
intended to be used as beams. These are weak in torsion
and weak axis bending.
When such beams are loaded in the major direction have
a tendency to buckle out of plane and twist. Thus lateral
and torsional buckling will interact with each other to
give a complex phenomenon known as LTB.

Compression flange of the beam behaves like column which is
subjected to axial compression due to flexure. The flange will
have a tendency to buckle in lateral direction. Since tension
flange do not have such tendency it will try to remain in the
original position. This gives rise the twisting tendency.

DESIGN OF BEAMS (FOR FLEXURE)
u
v
Mx
Mx
y
|
z
x
L
Z
Simply supported beam subjected
to end moments
Basic equation for LTB moment capacity is developed from
DESIGN OF BEAMS (FOR FLEXURE)
Basic formula for factored Moment capacity involving
Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling is
IN-ELASTIC LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING
AXIAL COMPRESSION & BENDING :
The interaction Equation for Class 1 and Class 2 sections
0 . 1
85 . 0
1 1
s
·
+
·
+
ry
fy y
rx
fx x
r
f
M
M U
M
M U
C
C |
A distinction is made between braced and unbraced frames. A frame
with direct bracing is classified as braced if it‟s sway stiffness is 5
times that of frame stiffness without bracing.
C
f
and M
f
- max load effects including P-delta effects.
y
ì | 4 . 0 6 . 0 + =
AXIAL COMPRESSION & BENDING :
Three Limit States shall be examined.
Cross Sectional Strength :
(This check is applicable for braced frames only)
| = 0.6
C
r
= Axial strength with ì = 0
M
r
= Full Bending Strength (As per Class)
U1x and U1y as defined in clause 13.8.4 >=1.0 (In lieu of more detailed
analysis, the value of U
1
for the axis under consideration, accounting for the
second- order effects due to deformation of the member between its end in
short taking care of member p-d effect.)
AXIAL COMPRESSION & BENDING :
Overall Member Strength : I n-plane behavior
C
r
= Axial strength with K = 1.0 Since in-plane bending
For uniaxial Strong axis bending C
r
= C
rx
(Because in the plane we have
already applied notional load effect with p-delta second order analysis to find
final force on beam/column.)
M
r
= Full Bending Strength (As per Class)
U
1x
and U
1y
as defined in clause 13.8.4 >=1.0 for braced frames
U
1x
and U
1y
are taken as 1.0 for unbraced frame
U
1x
and U
1y
are the factors which take care of P-o effect between
member ends which is negligible for unbraced frames.
AXIAL COMPRESSION & BENDING :
Lateral Torsional Buckling Strength : Out of plane behavior
C
r
= Axial strength for out of plane behavior and is based on weak-axis
or flexural Torsional buckling for singly symmetric or asymmetric section.
M
rx
= Bending Strength based on lateral torsional buckling strength (As
per Class)
M
ry
= Full bending strength


U
1x
and U
1y
as defined in clause 13.8.4 >=1.0 for braced frames
U
1x
and U
1y
are taken as 1.0 for unbraced frame
DESIGN OF BEAMS-COLUMNS
VALUE OF U
1
:- Required to account for member P-o with intermediate
loads between ends.
ion considerat under axis for the C Where
1
2 2
e
1
1
L EI
C
C
U
e
f
t
e
=
÷
=
Value of e
1
:

1) Members not subjected to transverse loads
e
1
= 0.6 - 0.4 k >= 0.4
2) For members having distributed load or series of point loads
e
1
= 1
3) For members having concentrated load or moment
e
1
= 0.85
DESIGN OF BEAMS-COLUMNS
AXIAL TENSION + BENDING :
sections 4 Class and 3 Class for
sections 2 Class and 1 Class for
0 . 1
My M
Mp M
where
M
M
T
T
r
r
r
f
r
f
|
|
=
=
s +
Cross Sectional Strength :
Overall Member Strength :
sections 4 Class and 3 Class for 0 . 1
sections 2 Class and 1 Class for 0 . 1
s ÷
s ÷
A M
S T
M
M
A M
Z T
M
M
r
f
r
f
r
f
r
f
BOLT AND WELD DESIGN
 IMPORTANCE OF CONNECTIONS
 TYPES OF CONNECTIONS
 BOLTED CONNECTIONS - BEARING
 BOLTED CONNECTIONS - SLIP CRITICAL
 BOLTED CONNECTIONS - GENERAL
 BOLTED CONNECTIONS - DETAILING
 WELDED CONNECTIONS
PART 3 :
IMPORTANCE OF CONNECTION
DESIGN AND DETAILING
• LOAD TRANSFER IN DESIRED MANNER
• EASE OF FABRICATION
• EASE OF ERECTION
• COST
TYPES OF CONNECTIONS
BOLTED CONNECTIONS
WELDED CONNECTIONS
COMBINED BOLTED AND WELDED CONNECTIONS
• CLASSIFICATION BASED ON LOAD TRANSFER :
SHEAR CONNECTIONS
MOMENT CONNECTIONS
• CLASSIFICATION BASED ON FUNCTION :
BEARING CONNECTIONS
SLIP CRITICAL CONNECTIONS
TENSION CONNECTIONS
• CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MATERIAL :
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - BEARING
Type of Bolts used : ASTM classification
• A 307 Bolts (Mild steel bolts)
• A 325 and A 490 Bolts (High Strength bolts)
DESIGN OF BOLTS :
• Shear
• Tension
• Combined Tension + Shear
• Bearing at bolt holes
Note : All factored tension and shear resistances are based on gross (nominal)
bolt area and not net tension area. (except for shear resistance for the
bolts with threads included in shear plane)
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - BEARING
DESIGN FOR SHEAR :
Factored Shear Resistance Developed shall be smaller of -

• Factored Bearing Resistance : Material Failure

• Factored Shear Resistance : Bolt Failure
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - BEARING
Factored Bearing Resistance : Material Failure
0.80
3
=
=
br
u br r
tdnF B
|
|
Actually, the formula contains the term e/d which is assumed as
3 which is max. Where e is edge distance.
The actual formula is
u br r
tneF B | =
t = Thickness of connected plate
d = Dia of bolt
n = No. of Bolts
Fu = Tensile strength of the connected part = 450 MPa for
300/350W Steel
0.67
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - BEARING
Factored Shear Resistance : Bolt Failure
For Threads Excluded in shear plane the formula is :
8 . 0
6 . 0
=
=
b
u b b r
F nmA V
|
|
For Threads Included the value of V
r
x 0.7
Where m = Shear planes / Faying Surfaces
A
b
= Area of bolt based on nominal dia
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - BEARING
COMMON INFORMATION NEEDED FOR STEEL DESIGN
BOLT TYPE Fy (Mpa) Fu (Mpa) REMARKS
A 307 - 414
A 325 M - 830 Metric Sizes
A 490 M - 1040 Metric Sizes
A 325 (d <= 1") - 825
A 325 (d > 1") - 725
A 490 - 1035
Material Fy (Mpa) Fu (Mpa) REMARKS
300W 300 450 Except W, T
350W 350 450 W, T Shapes
Note : For bolts Fu is most commonly used and not Fy
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION
Bolts in Tension :
8 . 0
75 . 0
=
=
b
u b b r
F A T
|
|
Where
A
b
= Area of bolt based on nominal dia
Fu = Specified Min Tensile Strength
Please note that Applied force T
f
is independent of any Pretension and
shall be taken as sum of
Applied Load & Tension developed due to Prying Action
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION
PRYING FORCES :
Prying Forces will not be Significant if
Connected Material is stiff compared to Bolts
Prying Forces will be significant if
Connected Material is flexible compared to Bolts
Thumb Rule : If plate thickness is much more than Bolt dia then the
Prying forces are insignificant.
Prying forces shall never exceed more than 30% of applied load.
Please refer Page 3-19, 3-20 for Procedure of finding Prying
forces and amplified bolt force.
EFFECT OF PRYING FORCES ON BOLT TENSION :
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION
PRE-TENSIONING :
Requirements :
1. If connection is subjected to cyclic tensile loading
2. High Strength bolts are normally pre-tensioned especially
when subjected to Tension. For bearing bolts they used as snug-
tight unless specified otherwise.
3. Slip-Critical Connections
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION
BEHAVIOUR OF BOLTS IN TENSION INVOLVING PRE-TENSIONING :
P/2 P/2
P/2 P/2
Pretension = T
0
Applied Tension = P
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION
T
0
Case 1; P=0
Clamping Force = T
0
T
0
Case 2; P < T
0
Clamping Force = T
0
-P
P/2 P/2
Pre-tensioning :
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION
T
0
Case 3; P = T
0
Clamping Force = 0
P/2 P/2
Plates tend to seperate
P
Case 4; P > T
0
P/2 P/2
Plates seperated
Bolt Tension = P
Pre-tensioning :
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION
Pre-tensioning :
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION

Use of Snug Tightened High Strength Bolts :
It can be used for all connections except following situations.
Use of Pre-tensioned High Strength Bolts :
Pre-tensioning is required in following situations :
 Slip Critical connections
 Shear Connections designed for Seismic requirements
 Elements resisting crane loads
 Tension Bolts
 Impact / Cyclic Loading
 Connections using oversized holes unless movement is required
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION


Methods of Pre-tensioning:
 Turn-of-Nut method – Refer table 8 for additional rotation to be
applied after snug tight condition.
 Use of Direct Tension Indicators - DTIs
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - TENSION
Snug tightening:
The condition commonly attended by a few impacts of an impact wrench or
the full effort of an ironworker using an ordinary spud wrench than bring the
plies into firm contact.
BOLTED CONNECTIONS
BOLTS :- COMBINED SHEAR + TENSION
0 . 1
2 2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
r
f
r
f
T
T
V
V
Canadian Code assumes Elliptical Interaction (Rather than Linear) for
Shear + Tension combined check.
BOLTED CONNECTIONS
Tension + Shear Block Failure : Material Failure
y gv u nt r r
F A F A V T | | 6 . 0 + = +
Factored Resistance of connecting part whose failure mode
involves Both Tension Fracture + Shear Yielding / Fracture
1) For Gussets, Framing Angles, Shear Tabs and Tension Members
Tension Fracture + Shear Yielding
Tension Fracture + Shear Fracture
u nv u nt r r
F A F A V T | | 6 . 0 + = +
BOLTED CONNECTIONS
y gv u nt r r
F A F A V T | | 6 . 0 5 . 0 + = +
2) For Coped beam:
Tension Fracture + Shear Yielding
Tension Fracture + Shear Fracture
u nv u nt r r
F A F A V T | | 6 . 0 5 . 0 + = +
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - SLIP-CRITICAL
What are Slip-Critical Connections ?
Where they are used ?
SLIP CRITICAL JOINTS ARE USED WHEN ----
Predominant Fatigue loads, dynamic or vibratory loads
Oversized Holes
Loads parallel to the long dimension of slot in case of slotted holes
Slip is detrimental for the structure, (serviceability criteria of the structure
or joint slip under service load combination.)
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - SLIP-CRITICAL
 Important points regarding SC joints
Oversized holes and slotted holes (long , short) are allowed
Loading direction is not important
Pretensioning to full strength for the bolts is required
Shear + Tension load transfer
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - SLIP-CRITICAL
Shear Connections : Shear Transfer
Slip Resistance Vs is given by,
V
s
= 0.53c
1
k
s
mnA
b
F
u

c
1
: Coeff. That relates initial tension and mean slip
depending upon method used for pre-tensioning of bolts.
k
s
: Mean Slip Coefficient
Refer Table 3 for details
Both k
s
and C
1
depends upon Surface preparations for Faying surfaces.
Three Coatings are proposed to achieve slip-critical :
CLASS A, CLASS B, CLASS C (Galvanized)
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - SLIP-CRITICAL

When long slotted holes are used in SC Connections, the value of Vs
shall be taken as 0.75 Vs calculated above.
Explanation of 0.53 A
b
F
u :
Pre-tension is always 70% of Fu. Hence Pretension is
0.7*0.75A
b
F
u
= 0.53 A
b
F
u

BOLTED CONNECTIONS - SLIP-CRITICAL

Even if the bolts are not intended for load transfer through bearing,
check will be necessary for these connections as per code.
Combined Shear + Tension Check :
The following interaction shall be satisfied :

0 . 1 9 . 1 s +
u b s
F nA
T
V
V
OR

0 . 1 s +
i s
T
T
V
V
T
i
is the initial tension in the bolt due to pretensioning.
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - GENERAL

Use of Snug Tightened High Strength Bolts :
It can be used for all connections except following situations.
Use of Pre-tensioned High Strength Bolts :
Pre-tensioning is required in following situations :
 Slip Critical connections
 Shear Connections designed for Seismic requirements
 Elements resisting crane loads
 Tension Bolts
 Impact / Cyclic Loading
 Connections using oversized holes unless movement is required
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - DETAILING
Minimum Pitch :
Min distance between Center to Center of holes = 2.7 d
Minimum Edge distance :
Min edge distance are given for two situations :
1. Sheared Edge
2. At rolled, Gas cutting or Sawing - Less Edge distance
Bolt Holes :
Bolt holes shall be 2 mm larger than bolt diameter.
BOLTED CONNECTIONS - DETAILING
Minimum End distance :
(From center of end fastener to nearest end of connecting part)
For Tension members
No of bolts in direction of force Minimum end distance
> 2 Min. Edge distance as specified
in Table 6 of the code.
< = 2 1.5x d
WELDED CONNECTIONS - GENERAL
Resistance factor : |
w
= 0.67
For matching Electrodes with Steel grade, refer Table 3-22
for Steel 350W => Electrode tensile strength = 490 MPa
Welding Electrodes shall meet the requirements of
CSA Standard W48.
Welding Procedures shall meet the requirements of
CSA Standard W59.
Nomenclature for Weld : E490XX
WELDED CONNECTIONS - GENERAL
TYPES OF WELDS :-
 Fillet weld
 Groove weld
 Plug weld
TYPES OF FORCES :-
 SHEAR
 TENSION
WELDED CONNECTIONS - GENERAL
Full, Partial Penetration Groove Welds and Plug welds :
Factored Shear Resistance is lesser of
1. For base metal :
V
r
= 0.67 |
w
A
m
F
u
A
m
: Shear Area of Fusion face
F
u
: Tensile strength for Base metal
2. For weld metal :
V
r
= 0.67 |
w
A
w
X
u
A
w
: Area of effective weld throat or Plug
X
u
: Tensile strength for Weld metal

WELDED CONNECTIONS - GENERAL
Fillet welds :
Factored Shear Resistance is lesser of
1. For base metal :
V
r
= 0.67 |
w
A
m
F
u
A
m
: Shear Area of Fusion face
F
u
: Tensile strength for Base metal
2. For weld metal :
V
r
= 0.67 |
w
A
w
X
u
(1.00+0.5sin
1.5
u)

A
w
: Area of effective weld throat
X
u
: Tensile strength for Weld metal
q : Angle of axis of weld to line of action of force
0 for longitudinal weld and 1 for transverse weld
WELDED CONNECTIONS - GENERAL
Fillet welds :
(1.00+0.5sin
1.5
u) = 1.0 conservatively
Transverse welds are strongest and Longitudinal welds are
the weakest.
TENSION NORMAL TO AXIS OF WELD :
Full penetration Groove weld : Factored tensile resistance same
as that of base metal.
WELDED CONNECTIONS - GENERAL
Partial penetration Groove weld :
Factored tensile resistance shall be taken as -

T
r
= |
w
A
n
F
u
<= | A
g
F
y

For Overall ductile behavior is desired :
(Member yielding before weld fracture)
A
n
F
u
> A
g
F
y

Residual Stresses due to Welding :

• Tensile stresses in welds
• Compressive stresses in Parent material
• Pre or Post heat treatment may be required to relieve these
stresses for large joints.
WELDED CONNECTIONS - GENERAL
Minimum Fillet Weld Size (According to CSA-W59) :
Material thk, t Min. Weld Remarks
of thicker Part Size (mm)
joined (mm)
t <= 12 5 Single Pass
12 < t <=20 6 Welds must be
20 < t 8 used
Note : The fillet weld size will be less than or equal to thickness of
thinner part.
BOLTS & WELDS IN COMBINATION
Please note the following points for Bolts and welds used in
combinations although it is not preferred to do it :

1) In Slip Critical connections, Bolts and welds shall have more
strength individually than the factored loads
2) In bearing connections, If bolts and welds are used in
combination, then welds are assumed to carry full force.
3) In slip critical connections, load sharing shall be on the basis of
proportional capacities of bolts in slip critical connection and 0.7
times the factored resistance of weld.
PART 3 :
CONNECTION DESIGN
 TYPES OF CONNECTIONS BASED ON FORCE TRANSFER
 SHEAR CONNECTIONS
 MOMENT CONNECTIONS
 ANCHOR RODS
 ECCENTRIC CONNECTIONS
 SPLICE CONNECTIONS
PART 3B : MOMENT AND SHEAR CONNECTIONS
To be continued ……...