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PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Computer Numerical Control


Unit 76
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Objectives
Identify types of systems and controls used in computer numerical control
List steps required to produce a part by computer numerical control Discuss advantages and disadvantages of computer numerical control

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Numerical Control
Method of accurately controlling operation of a machine tool by series of coded instructions that the machine control unit (MCU) can understand
Instructions converted into electrical pulses of current which machine motors and controls follow

Computer numerical control (CNC) machines minimize human error

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Theory of CNC
Enable industry to consistently produce parts to accuracies undreamed of a few years ago Same part can be reproduced to same degree of accuracy any number of times with amazing speed
Computer properly programmed Machine properly set up

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Role of a Computer in CNC

Found many uses in overall manufacturing process Fill three major roles in CNC:
1. Almost all machine control units include or incorporate computer in operation 2. Most of part programming for CNC machine tools done with off-line computer assistance 3. Increasing number of machine tools controlled or supervised by computers that may be in separate control room (direct numerical control-DNC)

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Two Types of Computers


Analog
Used primarily in scientific research and problem solving Replaced in most cases by digital computers

Digital
Accepts input of digital information in numerical form, processes it and develops output data

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Three Categories of Computers and Computer Systems


Mainframe
Can be used to do more than one job at a time Large with huge capacity of storage Company's main computer

Minicomputer
Smaller in size and capacity Dedicated type so performs specific tasks

Microcomputer
One chip contains arithmetic-logic and controllogic functions of the central processing unit

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Computer Functions
To receive coded instructions (input data) in numerical form Process information Produce output data that causes machine tool to function Most common method to input data is directly through computer

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CNC Performance
Great advances since NC introduced in mid 1950s Early machines capable only of point-topoint positioning and very costly Cost has continually lowered
Within financial reach of small manufacturing shops and educational institutions

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CNC Offers Industry Many Advantages

CNC Offers

Accuracy
.0001-.0002 in.

Repeatability

Reliability

Productivity

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Advantages of CNC
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Greater operator safety Greater operator efficiency Reduction of scrap Reduced lead time for production Fewer chances for human error Maximum part accuracy and interchange

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7. Complex machining operations 8. Lower tooling costs

9. Increased productivity
10. Minimal spare parts inventory

11. Greater machine tool safety


12. Fewer worker hours for inspection 13. Greater machine utilization 14. Reduced space requirements

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Cartesian Coordinates
Allows any specific point on job to be described in mathematical terms in relation to any other point along three perpendicular axes Machine tool construction based on three axes of motion (X, Y, Z) plus axis of rotation
Example: Vertical milling machine
X axis is horizontal movement (right or left) of table Y axis is table cross movement (to/away from column) Z axis is vertical movement of knee or spindle

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Three-Dimensional Coordinate Planes


X and Y planes are horizontal and represent horizontal machine table motions Z plane represents vertical tool motion Plus and minus signs indicate direction of movement from zero point along axis Four quadrants formed when X-Y axes cross are numbered in counterclockwise direction

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Coordinate System
Quadrant II (-X, +Y) -X
X Axis

+Y

Quadrant I (+X, +Y)


+X Origin, or Quadrant I Zero Point (+X, -Y) Two intersecting lines
that form right angles

Quadrant III (-X, -Y)

-Y

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Three-Dimensional Coordinate Planes


+Z

+Y
-X

+X -Y -Z
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Guidelines to Follow When Using the System of Rectangular Coordinates


1. Use reference points on part itself 2. Use Cartesian coordinates specifying X, Y, and Z planes to define all part surfaces 3. Establish reference planes along part surfaces that are parallel to machine axes 4. Establish allowable tolerances at design stage 5. Describe part so that cutter path may be easily determined and programmed 6. Dimension part so it is easy to determine shape without calculations or guessing

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Machine Axes
Every CNC machine tool has sliding and rotary controllable axes Letters (addresses) used to identify each direction of table or spindle movement
Combined with number to form word establishes distance axis moves

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Electronics Industries Association (EIA) Standard


Longest horizontal axis movement is X axis, Y axis assigned to perpendicular to both X and Z axes Secondary axes parallel to X, Y, Z axes A, B, and C refer to rotary motion axes around primary axes

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I, J, and K words used for rotary axes when circular interpolation used for programming circles or partial arcs R word represents radius of circle U and W words for incremental movement parallel to X and Z primary axes
Chucking and turning centers

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Machines Using CNC


Used on all types of machine tools, from simplest to most complex
Two common: chucking center (lathe) and machining center (milling machine) Developed in mid-1960s Operates on two axes
X axis control cross motion of turret head Z axis control lengthwise travel of turret head

1. Chucking centers

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2. Engine lathe (two axes)


X axis controls cross motion of cutting tool Z axis controls carriage travel toward/away from headstock

+X X axis controls table movement left or right

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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3. Machining centers
Developed in 1960s Allow more operations to be done on part in one setup instead of moving from machine to machine Two main types of machining centers
Horizontal Vertical spindle (three axis) X axis controls table movement left or right Y axis controls table movement toward or sway from column Z axis controls vertical movement of spindle or knee

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4. Milling machine (three axis)


Performs operations such as milling, drilling, gear cutting, contouring

X axis controls table movement left or right

Y axis control table movement toward or away from column


Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Z axis controls vertical movement of knee or spindle

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Programming Systems
Two types of programming modes
Incremental system Absolute system

Most controls on machine tools capable of handling both by altering code between G90 (absolute) and G91 (incremental) commands

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Incremental System
Program dimensions or positions given from current point Disadvantage
If error made in any location, error automatically carried over to all following locations

G91 command tells computer and MCU to be in incremental mode

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Command codes tell machine to move table, spindle, and knee on vertical milling machine
plus X (+X) causes cutting tool to be located to right of the last point minus X (-X) causes cutting tool to be located to left of the last point plus Y (+Y) causes cutting tool to be located toward column minus Y (-Y) causes cutting tool to be located away from column plus Z (+Z) causes cutting tool or spindle to move up or away from workpiece minus Z (-Z) moves cutting tool down or into workpiece

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Absolute System
All dimensions or positions given from one reference point on job or machine All dimensions given from zero or reference point Errors not carried to any other location G90 command indicates to computer and MCU that program is to be in absolute mode

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Absolute System Commands


plus X (+X)
causes cutting tool to be located to right of zero point

minus X (-X)
causes cutting tool to be located to left of zero point

plus Y (+Y)
causes cutting tool to be located toward column (above zero)

minus Y (-Y)
causes cutting tool to be located away from column (below zero)

plus Z (+Z)
causes cutting tool to move above program Z0 (top surface of part)

minus Z (-Z)
causes cutting tool to move below the program Z0

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CNC Positioning Systems


Two distinct categories
Point-to-point Continuous-path

Both can be handled by most control units Knowledge of both programming methods necessary to understand what application each has in CNC

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Point-to-Point Positioning
Consists of any number of programmed points joined together by straight lines Used to accurately locate spindle, or workpiece mounted on machine table to perform operations Process of positioning from one coordinate (X-Y) position or location to another, perform the operation, clear tool from work, and move to next location

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Rapid Travel
Point-to-point machining moves from one point to another as fast as possible (rapids) while cutting tool above work surface Used to quickly position cutting tool between location points
Rate between 200 and 800 in./min

Both axes (X and Y) move simultaneously


Movement along 45 angle line until one axis reached, then straight line movement to other

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Continuous-Path (Contouring)
Involves work produced on lathe or milling machine where cutting tool usually in contact with workpiece as it travels from one programmed point to next Ability to control motions on two or more machine axes simultaneously Information in CNC program must accurately position cutting tool and follow predefined accurate path

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Control Systems
Two main types of control systems
Open loop Closed loop

Most machine tools manufactured contain closed loop system


Very accurate and result in better quality work

Open loop systems can still be found on older NC machines

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Open Loop System


Input data fed into machine control unit Decoded information sorted until CNC machining cycle started by operator Program commands converted into electric pulses
Sent to MCU to energize servo control units which direct servomotors to perform certain functions Amount servomotor moves lead screw depends on number of electric pulses

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Closed Loop System


Similar to open loop system with exception that feedback unit added to electric circuit
Feedback unit used for absolute position control and/or velocity feedback

Linear encoder consist of scale mounted to stationary part of machine


Uses slide mounted to moving part of machine

Control unit tells servomotor to adjust until both signal from control unit and signal from servo unit equal (one pulse causes .0001 in. movement)

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Input Media
Early media was 1-in. wide, 8-track punched tape Other types
Magnetic tape, punched cards, magnetic disks, and manual data input (MDI)

Computer keyboard formatted to American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) standard to input directly to machine control unit
Microcomputer along with communications software becoming preferred input method

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Types of Computer Control


Two types of control units
CNC control
Evolved from DNC applications in early 1970s Generally used to control individual machines

DNC control
Used where six or more CNC machines involved in complete manufacturing program

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Four Main Parts of Computer Numerical Control System


1. General-purpose computer, which gathers and stores programmed information 2. Control unit which communicates and directs flow on information between computer and machine control unit 3. Machine logic, receives information and passes it on to machine control unit 4. Machine control unit which contains servo units, speed and feed controls, and machine operations

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Computer Numerical Control


Built around powerful minicomputer
Contains large memory capacity Many features to assist in programming

Microcomputers are now incorporated into controls Program stored in computer memory Main advantage is ability to operate in live mode
Enables program changes at machine so programs can be tried, corrected, and revised correctly

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Advantages of CNC Programming


More flexible because changes can be made to program Can diagnose programs on graphic display screen Can be integrated with DNC systems in complex manufacturing systems by using communications loop Increases productivity Makes corrections on first part possible Practical to produce short-run lots (even profitable)

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Direct Numerical Control System


Number of CNC equipped machines controlled from mainframe computer Can handle scheduling of work and download complete program into machine's memory when new parts required Equipped with own minicomputer or microcomputer
Can operate each machine individually

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Advantages of DNC
Single computer can control many machine tools at same time Time saved in eliminating program errors or revising program Programming faster, simpler, and more flexible Operating costs lower than with NC

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Computer can record any production, machining, or time data required

Main control unit can be kept in clean processing room, away from dirty shop conditions
When three or more machines DNCcontrolled, initial cost lower than for conventional NC

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Programming Format
Most common type is word address format
Large number of different codes to transfer program information to machine servos, relays, and micro-switches to carry out machine movements

Codes then put together in logical sequence called block of information


One step of operation

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Word Address Format


Format used on CNC system determined by machine tool builder
Based on control unit of machine

Uses words
Address character (letter) such as S, X, Y, T, F, or M Alphabetical character followed by numerical data used to identify specific function or give distance, feed rate or speed value

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Codes
Most common CNC programming codes
G-codes: preparatory commands M-codes: miscellaneous functions

F, S, D, H, P, and T
Used to represent functions: feed, speed, cutter diameter offset, tool length compensation, subroutine call, tool number, etc.

A (angle) and R (radius) used to locate points on arcs and circles

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G-Codes
Refer to some action occurring on X, Y, and/or Z axis of machine tool Grouped into categories with group number G00 used to rapidly position cutting tool from one point to another point G01, G02, and G03
Move axes at controlled feed rate G01 used for linear interpolation G02 (clockwise) and G03 (counterclockwise) used for circular interpolation

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G-Codes
Some classified as modal or nonmodal
Modal codes stay in effect in program until changed by another code from same group Nonmodal codes stay in effect for one operation only and must be programmed again whenever required

Many of the common G-codes that conform to EIA standards shown on next slide and in text in Fig. 76-28

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Commonly Used EIA Preparatory Codes


GroupG-code 01 G00 Function Rapid positioning EIA274-D Standard

01
01 01

G01
G02 G03

Linear interpolation
Circular interpolation clockwise (CW) Circular interpolation counterclockwise (CCW)

00
00 02

G04
G10 G17

Dwell
Offset value setting XY plane selection

Portion of Figure 76-28 from textbook

02
02 06

G18
G19 G20

ZX plane selection
YZ plane selection Inch input (in.)

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M-Codes
Used to turn either on or off different functions that control certain machine tool operations (not grouped by categories) M03 turns machine spindle clockwise M04 turns spindle counterclockwise M05 turns off spindle All three of the codes above are modal Common M-codes in text in Fig. 76-29

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Most Common EIA M-codes


M-Code M00 M01 M02 M03 M04 M05 M06 Function Program stop Optional stop End of program Spindle start (forward CW) Spindle start (reverse CCW) Spindle stop Tool change

M07
M08 M09

Mist coolant on
Flood coolant on Coolant off

Portion of Figure 76-29 from textbook

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Block of Information
Should contain only enough information to carry out one step of a machining operation Example:
Tool moves from one point to another, then to third point which is two moves (two blocks)
Cannot give first point and third point as one move so cannot combine blocks

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Interpolation
Generation of data points between given coordinate position of axes Interpolator (device within MCU)
Causes drives to move simultaneously from start of command to completion

Always performed under programmed feed rates

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Types of Interpolation
Linear interpolation for straight-line machining between two points Circular interpolation for circles and arcs Helical interpolation for threads and helical forms Parabolic and cubic interpolation used by industries that manufacture parts having complex shapes

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Linear Interpolation
Consists of any programmed points joined together by straight lines Include horizontal, vertical, or angular lines where points may be close together or far apart

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Circular Interpolation
Make process of programming arc and circles easy Basic information required to program circle
Position of circle center Start and end points of arc being cut Direction of cut Feed rate for tool

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The circle center position, radius, start point, end point, and direction of cut are required for circular interpolation.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Methods Used to Write Block for Arc


One method uses I and J command to identify coordinates of center of arc Simpler method uses R (radius of arc) command, which MCU uses to calculate arc center

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Program Planning
Information gathered, analyzed and calculated before writing program Consider capabilities of machine
Capacity Tooling requirements Programming format etc.

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Questions Programmer Needs to Ask for Successfully Programming a Part


1. What are proper cutting speeds and feeds for type of material being machined? 2. How will part be held? Will clamps interfere with movement of axes? 3. Are required tools and holders available? 4. Will special coolant be required, or are present type and concentration correct?

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5. What is the table feed direction? 6. How fast can tool be moved to location: rapid traverse or at feed rate? 7. What will tool do when it reaches its location for example, drill hole or mill pocket? 8. Where will the part zero point, or origin, be located, on part of the machine?

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Tool List
List of all tools required for machining process
Complete with correct speeds and feeds for each tool based
Tool material type Type of material being cut Depth of cut

Some CNC systems require presetting tool length for purpose of offsets
Special gage needed

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Manuscript
Programmer records on prepared form all instructions that machine tool must have to complete job
Contains all machine tool movements, cutting tools, speeds, feeds and any other information Uniform format and clear as possible

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Manuscript Information
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Part sketch Zero (or reference) point Work-holding device (include setups) Sequence of operations Axes dimensions Tool list and identification Speeds and feeds Operator instructions