VIETNAM WAR

Group 4: Nguyen Thi Kim Chi Nguyen Thi Dung Hoang Thanh Huyen Doan Thi Thu Phuong Nguyen Thi Huyen Trang

OUTLINE
I. OVERVIEW II. STAGES OF VIETNAM WAR
3. 4. 5. 6. The seeds of the War American Commit Jungle War Bitter Failure (1945-1960) (1961-1964) (1965-1969) (1969-1975)

III. QUIZ & DISCUSSION

OVERVIEW
• Duration: 1945 – 1975  4 stages  the longest war in American history the most unpopular American war of the twentieth century. • Casualties: nearly 60,000 American deaths & an estimated 2 million Vietnamese deaths. • Main cause: Stop the spread of communism • Doubt among American citizens: Vietnam war a sin, a blunder, a necessary war a noble cause, or an idealistic effort to protect the South Vietnamese from totalitarian government.

STAGES OF VIETNAM WAR
EACH STAGE
2.Situation 3.American strategies & main events

STAGE 1 1. Situation

The seeds of the War

International situation
-

1945 World War II Allies including the U.S., Britain, and Soviet Union, hold the Potsdam Conference in Germany to plan the post-war world

- October 1949 - Mao Zedong's Communist forces defeated Chiang Kaishek's Nationalist Army in the Chinese civil war. - January 1950 - The People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union recognized Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam. - February 7, 1950 - In America, the era of 'McCarthyism' erupted

STAGE 1 1. Situation
Domestic situation

The seeds of the War

- Japanese surrendered unconditionally - Vietnam's puppet emperor, Bao Dai, abdicated. Ho Chi Minh's guerrillas occupied Hanoi and proclaim a provisional government - The French restored control in the south of Vietnam - The conflict between Vietnam and France was in process with changes in superiority and coming to an end with Vietnam’s victory.

STAGE 1 -

The seeds of the War

2. American strategies and main events
From 1950-1954:
-

With the support from China, the visage of the war experienced shifts of the superiority.

- French Forces was under great pressure to end the war as soon as possible - Dien Bien Phu - May 7th 1954, French forces surrendered after being surrounded and defeated by Vo Nguyen Giap soldiers  July 21st 1954: Geneva Conference: restoring peace in Indochina

STAGE 1 -

The seeds of the War

American involvement
United States got involved and indirect control of the war between Vietnam and France over the financial and military aids it provided French forces. - July 26, 1950 President Harry Truman authorizes $15 million in military aid to the French. - Over the next four years, the U.S. spent $3 Billion on the French war and by 1954 provided 80 percent of all war supplies used by the French. - September 27, 1950 - The U.S. established a Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) in Saigon to aid the French Army.

STAGE 1 -

The seeds of the War

American involvement
-

January 20, 1953 - Dwight D. Eisenhower was inaugurated as the 34th U.S. President. Eisenhower would greatly increased U.S. military aid to the French in Vietnam to prevent a Communist victory. 'Domino Theory‘

- March 30 - May 1, The siege at Dien Bien Phu occured as nearly 10,000 French soldiers were trapped by 45,000 Viet Minh. French troops soon ran out of fresh water and medical supplies. The French urgently appealed to Washington for help

STAGE 1 -

The seeds of the War

From 1955 to 1960:
• The South of Vietnam was under the rule of Ngo Dinh Diem government and it is supported by the U.S. • Ngo Dinh Diem army launched many brutal crackdowns against the Viet Minh. • March 1959 - The armed revolution began as Ho Chi Minh declares a People's War to unite all of Vietnam under his leadership. His Politburo now ordered a changeover to an all-out military struggle. Thus began the Second Indochina War. • May 1959 - North Vietnamese established the Central Office of South Vietnam (COSVN) to oversee the coming war in the South. Construction of the Ho Chi Minh trail now begins.

STAGE 1 -

The seeds of the War

American involvement
Consistent with the aiding strategy, United States continued provided Diem’s government support financially and militarily with the aims to prevent the Communist expansion in the South of Vietnam. - January 1955 - The first direct shipment of U.S. military aid to Saigon arrived. Diem was advised on consolidating power by U.S. Air Force Col. Edward G. Lansdale, who was attached to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

STAGE 1 -

The seeds of the War

American involvement
-

October 26, 1955 - The Republic of South Vietnam was proclaimed with Diem as its first president. In America, President Eisenhower pledged his support for the new government and offers military aid.

- July 8, 1959 - Two U.S. military advisors, Maj. Dale Buis and Sgt. Chester Ovnand, were killed by Viet Minh guerrillas at Bien Hoa, South Vietnam. They were the first American deaths in the Second Indochina War which Americans would come to know simply as The Vietnam War.

STAGE 2 –
1. Situation
-

American Commit

January 1961 - Soviet president supported for "wars of national liberation" throughout the world greatly encourages Communists in North Vietnam

-

January 20, 1961- John Fitzgerald Kennedy is inaugurated as the 35th U.S president the start of American commitment

STAGE 2 –

American Commit

2. American strategies and main events
-

Domino Theory: Kennedy intended to continue Eisenhower's policy of supporting Diem's South Vietnamese government. If communism was not halted in Vietnam it would gradually spread throughout the world.

-

Conflicting advice on Vietnam: a bottomless military and political swamp >< ability to prevent a NLF (viet cong) victory in South Vietnam with a small increase in military aid

 Kennedy agreed with the latter: In 1961 he arranged for the South Vietnamese to receive the money to increase the size of their army from 150,000 to 170,000. He also agreed to send another 100 military advisers to Vietnam to help train

STAGE 2 –

American Commit

Strategic Hamlet programme: (1962) – the concern on the influence of NLF (national liberation front= viet cong)  move the peasants into new villages in areas under the control of SV army with fence surrounding and patrol – This strategy failed dismally : using force hostility towards Diem government people following NLF increased to over 17000 – Kennedy became worried when NLF now controlled over one-fifth of the villages in South Vietnam.  This forced Kennedy to supply more military advisers, which reached

12,000 in 1962. Also, he decided to supply South Vietnam with 300 helicopters.

STAGE 2 –

American Commit

Religious rebel against Ngo Dinh Diem’s government: - The main religion in Vietnam was Buddhism (60%). - President Ngo Dinh Diem was a Catholic and tended to appoint Catholic people to positions of authority, and he approved of the anti-Buddhist laws  anger among Buddhists - On May 8, 1963, Buddhists assembled in Hue to celebrate the 2527th birthday of the Buddha. The police dispersed the crowd by opening fire on them - In an attempt to let the world know about it, on June 11, 1963, Thich Quang Duc sat down in the middle of a busy Saigon road and let others burn himself - The government's response to this suicide was to arrest thousands of Buddhist monks. One member of the South Vietnamese government responded "Let them burn, and we shall clap our hands."  These events convinced President John F. Kennedy that Ngo Dinh Diem would never be able to unite the South Vietnamese against communism.

STAGE 2 –
-

American Commit

At the beginning of November, 1963, President Diem was overthrown and killed by a military coup. Three weeks later. President Kennedy was also assassinated.

-

The substitution of his deputy: Lyndon B. Johnson. Johnson was a strong supporter of the Domino Theory

-

pressure to send more American troops to Vietnam: the doubt about the ability of General Khanh in Viet Nam.

 Johnson’s reluctance to take unpopular measures like sending troops until after the 1964 Presidential Elections

STAGE 2 –

American Commit

New Strategy: attack on the head and find a reason
The election was not due for another eleven months this was too long to wait They therefore suggested another strategy with fewer men killed Attack on the head: Military intelligence officers working in Vietnam had believed that without the support of the Hanoi government, the NLF would not survive.  They therefore advocated the bombing of Hanoi Attacking points:

“Back to Stone Age” OR “Bomb Selected Targets” (military bases and fuel depots)???  Lyndon B. Johnson preferred the latter proposal He would have difficulty convincing the American public and the rest of the world that such action was justified.  gave permission for a plan

STAGE 2 –
Find a reason: -

American Commit

-

Operation Plan 34A: On August 2, 1964, the US destroyer, "Maddox" was fired upon by three North Vietnamese boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. In retaliation, "Maddox" fired back and hit all three. Soon after entering North Vietnamese waters, Captain Herrick reported that he was under attack. However, later he sent a message that raised doubts about this  Johnson now ignored the second message. He ordered the bombing of four North Vietnamese torpedo-boat bases and an oil-storage planned three months previously. President Johnson then went on television: "Repeated acts of violence against the armed forces of the United States must be met not only with alert defence, but with a positive reply. That reply is being given as I speak tonight." The Congress approved Johnson's decision to bomb North Vietnam and passed what has become known as the Gulf of Tonkin (su kien vinh Bac Bo) 

STAGE 3 –
1. Situation

Jungle War

- Lyndon Johnson was elected US president and inaugurated in January 1965 - The event of 1968 Tet Offensive proved that President Lyndon Johnson’s strategies were not successful. - Richard Nixon was elected US president and inaugurated in January 1969.

STAGE 3 –

Jungle War

2. American strategies and main events
A. Strategies During President Lyndon Johnson’s term:
Strategies: search and destroy missions in the South and bombings in the North

During President Nixon’s term:
• • • • • • Reducing American casualties with "Vietnamization" Defusing anti-war protests by ending the military draft. Providing the South Vietnamese army with new training and improved weapons Frightening the North Vietnamese to the peace table Put Soviet and Chinese pressure on North Vietnam Cutting the Ho Chi Minh supply trail

STAGE 3 –
B. Main events
-

Jungle War

March 2, 1965: Rolling Thunder Began – bombing North Vietnam using 100 US Air Force planes and 60 South Vietnamese planes.

- June 17, 1965: The first B-52 raids were launched against Viet Cong targets in South Vietnam. - August 21, 1965: Operation Starlite, the first major action fought by 5,500 US troops in a Viet Cong base near Van Tuong was receded by a massive artillery and air assault. - December 24, 1965: The United States halted the bombing of North Vietnam to find a diplomatic settlement to the war.

STAGE 3 –

Jungle War

- January 24- March 6, 1966: Operation Masher: the largest search and destroy mission up to that point in the war. - April 12, 1966: The US launched the first B-52 raids on North Vietnam.   - July 15-August 3, 1966: Operation Hasting. - Sept. 14-Nov. 26, 1966: Operation Attleboro - January 8-26, 1967: Operation Cedar Falls  - March 1, 1967: Operation Junction City - January 20 – April 14, 1968: The battle of Khe Sanh

STAGE 3 –

Jungle War

- The 1968 Tet Offensive: Viet Cong troops infiltrated Saigon, captured the Citadel in Hue and seized part of the US embassy in Saigon. - May 10-20, 1969: US and South Vietnamese troops fought for Ap Bac Mountain for 10 days. - August 17-26th, 1969: The battle of Que Son Valley, 30 miles south of Da Nang.   - September 21, 1969: Thirty-five B-52s dropped more than one thousand tons of bombs on North Vietnamese targets near the DMZ.

STAGE 4 – 1. Situation

Bitter Failure

- After Tet Offensive, both US and South Vietnam were put under great alarm - Johnson did not stand for re-election so Nixon soon easily took the office - Anti-war movement in the US increased

 

STAGE 4 –
Strategies:

Bitter Failure

2. American strategies and main events
• Vietnamization (using South Vietnamese troop for the war only) • Madman theory (if the war continued for much longer Nixon was liable to resort to nuclear weapons against North Vietnam) • Phoenix Program (infiltrate peasant communities and discover the names of NLF sympathizers)

 encourage South Vietnam to take more responsibility for fighting the
war, withdraw all US soldiers

STAGE 4 –
Main events:

Bitter Failure

• On Jan.25th 1969, new peace talks between America and Vietnam began in Paris • June 1969, Nixon announced the first of the US troop withdrawals. The 540,000 US troops were to be reduced by 25,000. • Despite the incursion into Cambodia, Nixon had begun the systematic withdrawal of US forces, lowering troop strength to 156,800 in 1971. • 8th Feb 1971, the ARVN commenced Operation Lam Son 719 with the goal of severing the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos  ARVN forces were routed and driven back across the border.

STAGE 4 –
Main events:

Bitter Failure

• When the U.S. had withdrawn most of its troops from Vietnam, the North Vietnamese staged a massive assault, called the Easter Offensive (also called the Spring Offensive), on March 30, 1972. • In October 1972, Nixon’s National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, concluded a secret peace agreement with North Vietnam’s Le Duc Tho  In response, the North Vietnamese published the details of the agreement and stalled the negotiations. • Feeling that US had to come back to table for peace talk, Nixon ordered the bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong in late December 1972 (Operation

STAGE 4 –

Bitter Failure

• On 15th January 1973, Nixon announced the end of offensive operations against North Vietnam. • The Paris Peace Accords ending the conflict were signed January 27, 1973. Following was the withdrawal of the remaining American troops. • On 9th August, 1974, Richard Nixon resign from office (Watergate Scandal) • December 1974, American Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1974, cutting off all military aid  the ARVN weakened • In 1974, serious fighting had broken out between the NLF and the AVRN

STAGE 4 –

Bitter Failure

• The spring of 1975 saw a series of NLF victories  important areas such as Danang and Hue were lost in March panic swept through the AVRN • April 25th 1975, president Thieu resigned and left the country, followed by other South Vietnamese leaders and the remaining American advisers. • The NLF arrived in Saigon on April 30, 1975. After declaring that Vietnam was now a united country, Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam was established in July 1976

REFERENCES
• • • • • • • • •    http://www.thenation.com/classroom/paks/pakvietnam.mhtml http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index.html http://vietnamresearch.com/history/vntimeline.html http://history-world.org/vietnam_war.htm http://www.historycentral.com/Vietnam/events.html http://www.commondreams.org/views/041700-106.htm http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/vietnam/index-1965.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/talking_point/4491249.stm http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=619

Quiz
Read the following sentences and decide if it is True (T) or False (F)
2. President Richard Nixon claimed to have a plan to bring peace with honor. 3. The start of American commitment can be marked by Kennedy’s inauguration in 1961. 4. Geneva Conference in July 21th, 1954 was about restoring peace in Indochina. 5. President Lyndon Johnson continued the Vietnam War for fear of looking like a weakling. 6. Ngo dinh diem followed Buddhism so he advocated the policy supporting that religion.

Quiz
• In 1950, as a consequence of McCarthyism Theory, US politics turned hard on communism. • Lyndon Johnson used bombings in the south , and search & destroy missions in the North during the Jungle War. • Operation Linebacker II in 1972 was launched to bomb Hanoi only. • Richard Nixon was the 1st American president to resign from White House. • Lyndon Johnson intended to use the latest technology to make Vietnam "back to the Stone Age“

QUIZ
2. President Richard Nixon claimed to have a plan to bring peace with honor. T • The start of American commitment can be marked by Kennedy’s inauguration in 1961. T • Geneva Conference in July 21th, 1954 was about restoring peace in Indochina. T • President Lyndon Johnson continued the Vietnam War for fear of looking like a weakling. T • Ngo dinh diem followed Buddhism so he advocated the policy supporting that religion. F • In 1950, as a consequence of McCarthyism Theory, US politics turned hard on communism. T • Lyndon Johnson used bombings in the south , and search & destroy missions in the North during the Jungle War. F • Operation Linebacker II in 1972 was launched to bomb Hanoi only. F • Richard Nixon was the 1st American president to resign from White House. T • Lyndon Johnson intended to use the latest technology to make Vietnam "back to the Stone Age“ F

- Match the American strategies in Vietnam War with their correct practices.

- Decide which stage each strategy fell into
1. Domino Theory 2. Madman theory 3. Strategic Hamlet program 4. Vietnamization 5. Search and destroy missions 6. Phoenix program a. Infiltrating peasant communities and discovering the name of NLF sympathizers b. If the war continued for much longer, Nixon was liable to resort to nuclear weapons against North Vietnam. c. If the Communism fell in Vietnam, that would halt in other countries, too. d. Using Vietnamese troops to fight against Vietnamese forces. e. Finding Vietcong troops and killing them. f. In order to halt the influences of NLF, they forced people to move to a controlled area with surrounding fences and patrolling at the gate

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

c b f d e a

DISCUSSION
1. What is your opinion about the Vietnam War?
American’s citizens  a sin,  a blunder,  a necessary war, or  a noble cause, or  an idealistic, if failed, effort to protect the South Vietnamese from totalitarian government.

Thank you for your listening!

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