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Development, Promotion, Planning and

Status of Hydro Power in Nepal

by:
Tri Ratna Bajracharya
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering
Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Contents
 Introduction
 MHP Potential in Nepal
 MHP development
 Contribution to Rural Development
• Access to Electricity
• End Use and Income Generation
• Rural Enterprise Development
• Environment Saving
• Benefits to Society
 Barriers in MHP development
• Technology, Research and development
• Government Policy
 Conclusion and Recommendation
Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development
Introduction
 One of the least developing countries
 Per capita energy consumption: 15 GJ (the lowest per
capita energy consumption
 Nepal's per capita GDP (PPP) stands at US $ 1,370
(i.e. Purchasing power parity)
5000
4000 China Nepal India

3000 4580
2000
1000 2670
1370
0
per capital energy consumption

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction

 Energy is one of the foundations of modern


civilizations and economies. Electricity is prerequisite
for increasing economic productivity.
 Renewable Energy, an alternative energy resource
and a gradual transformation from non-renewable to
renewable energy. It can play a role of a catalyst in
Rural Development of Nepal.
 Hydropower is the indigenous and renewable energy
resource for Nepal.
 Economic Hydropower potential of Nepal is estimated
as 42,000 MW. MHP is estimated over than 50 MW.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction

Classification of Hydropower
Micro Hydro Power Up to 100 kW

Mini Hydro Power Above100 kW to 1 MW

Small Hydro Power Above 1 MW to 10 MW

Medium Hydro Power Above 10 MW to 300 MW

Large Hydro Power Above 300 MW

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction

Hydropower Sector Development


S.N. Name of HPP Capacity in Year of
MW commissioning
1 Pharping 0.50 1911
2 Sundarijal 0.64 1934
3. Phewa 1.00 1960
4. Panauti 2.40 1964
5. Trishuli 2.10 1970
6. Sunkoshi 10.00 1970
7. Gandak 15.00 1979
8. Kulekhani I 60.00 1982
9. Kulekhani II 32.00 1986
Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development
Introduction

Hydropower Sector Development


S.N. Name of HPP Capacity in MW Year of
commissioning
10 Marshyangdi 69.00 1989
11 Andikhola (BOOT) 5.10 1991
12 Jhimruk (BOOT) 12.00 1995
13 Khimti (BOOT) 60.00 1998
14 Bhotekoshi (BOOT) 36.00 2001
15 Kaligandaki 144.00 2002
16 Chilime (BOOT) 20.00
17 Indrawati (BOOT) 7.50
18 Upper Modi (BOOT) 14.00

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction

Hydropower Sector Development


S.N. Name of HPP Capacity Year of commissioning
in MW
19 Sange HP 0.18
20 Piluwa (BOOT) 3.00 2003
21 Sunkoshi Small HP 2.60 2005
22 Chakukhola 1.50 Under construction
23 Rairang HP 0.50 Under construction

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction

Hydropower Sector Development


Present Installed Capacity

Nepal Electricity Authority


(including private and others)

609.057 MW

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction

Classification of Micro Hydropower


Very Small Up to 8 kW

Small Hydropower 8 – 20 kW

Medium Hydro Power 20 – 50 kW

Large Hydro Power 50 – 100 kW

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction - Layout of MHP

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction - Layout of MHP

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction - Principle of Hydropower
E = ρ x V x g x h [(kg/m3) x (m3) x (m/s2) x m]
 = 1000 x V x g x h [kg x (m/s2) x m]
 = 1000 x V x g x h [N x m]
 = 1000 x V x g x h [J]
 The corresponding power may be calculated as
 P = E/t [J/s] = E/t [W]
 = 1000 x V x g x h/t [W]
 = 1000 x (V/t) x g x h [W]
 = Q x g x h [kW]
 P = 9.81 Q x h [kW]
Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development
Introduction

Contribution in GDP

Agriculture
sector
40%

Non
Agriculture
Sector
60%

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction

Per Capita Electricity Consumption


200
180 Pakistan India
160 Bangladesh Nepal
140 173
120
100 176
80
60
40 30
17
20
0
per capital electricity consumption

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction
 The major energy resources in rural areas :
fuelwood, agricultural residues, dung, muscle power
and traditional water mills.
 The 85% of its 23 million population still lives at rural
areas.
Traditional
Commercial
Energy
Energy
87.42%
12.10%

Renewable
Energy
0.47%

Energy Consumption Scenario

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Introduction
 Though one of the richest countries in the world in
hydropower resources, the country is highly dependent
upon biomass resources.
 73.7% of the commercial energy consumption of the
country still depends upon imported petroleum fuel (Year
2003).
 The import of fossil fuels are not only a burden to the
country's foreign currency reserve but is also highly
responsible for air pollution and the respiratory related
health diseases.
 These point to the fact that the country is facing quite a
burden while using fossil fuel use and it can be even
more deteriorative in the long run for the developing
country which does not have its own fossil fuel resource.
Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development
Introduction
 inevitable fact - hydropower is the country's indigenous
and renewable energy resource and it should be
harnessed and used to meet the basic energy needs of
the people
 but the country's economy does not provide enough
economic bases for a large-scale investment exploiting
large hydro-potentials and for laying transmission and
distribution network in rural areas.
 For an example, Seti hydropower 760 MW to be
developed in near future is totally dependent upon foreign
assistance and the neighbouring country India for its
energy consumption.
 In this context, renewable energy seems to be the viable
option for electrifying the rural area.
Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development
MHP Potential

 Theoretical hydroelectric potential of Nepal: 83,000


MW with 727,000 GWh per year.
 The economic potential is around 42,000 MW only.
 The above estimates of 83,000 MW accounted for
rivers with catchment area of over 300 km2 and a
minimum specific discharge of 5 l/s-km2, the
minimum discharge corresponding to above
catchment is 1.5 m3/s.
 But most MHPs tap hydropower from rivers having
discharge less than 1.5 m3/s.
 Therefore, it can be assumed that the above
estimate does not include MHP potential of Nepal.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


MHP Potential

 While the hydropower potential estimate accounts for


less than 500 numbers of large and small rivers.
 Nepal has over 6,000 rivers of length over 2 km.
 Therefore, the total theoretical potential of MHP is
very large and is to be estimated accurately.
 Nepal's MHP potential is yet unknown.
 Very rough estimates show that it should be over 50
MW.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


MHP Development

 The efforts to modernize traditional water mills


started in the 1960s. The main focus of these
efforts was the development of indigenous
capability to manufacture modern turbines in the
country.
 The first MHPs were add-on types.
 Stand-alone MHPs appeared in those places,
where there were no milling need or where the
MHP sites were far away from the settlement or
the power requirements were much higher than
that an add-on MHP could meet.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


MHP Development
160 kW No. 1000
140 900

Installed capacity, kW
800
120
installations

700
Number of

100 600
80 500
60 400
300
40
200
20 100
0 0
1980 1985 1990 Year 1995 2000

 Present installed capacity of MHP 13.85 MW


 electricity alone is 7.1 MW
(from year 1962 to mid July 2002/03; 95% of the 14.5 MW installed
total MHPs are assumed to be in function CADEC,2003).

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


MHP Development

 No. of MHPs in Ilam district 206 No. of MHPs


covers 15 % of total MHP
population. Others

Ilam
 Similarly Baglung district
generates 0.89 MW and is
12 % of total MHP power 1165
generation.7471.8 0.9 Power Generation
from MHPs in MW.
 Currently 0.81 MW of MHPs
are under construction and Others
detail feasibility of 0.97 MW
Baglung
capacity is already
completed.
6.6
Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development
Access to Electricity
1,000,000
Number of households

Microhydro
800,000 schemes 56220
Solar home 31330
600,000 systems 1261
3817
400,000 NEA & other
systems 697116
518816
200,000
19999 7403
0 29338
Mountain Hill Terai

 32.71 % of toptal population has access to electricity.


 MHP is able serve 4.23 % of the rural population residing in
hills and mountains.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


End Use and Income Generation

 MHP is generating a number of end use applications


in villages giving an opportunity for employment and
stimulating the income generation activities.
 Grinder, Huller, Sheller, Bakery, Furniture, Saw Mill,
Cold Store, Video Parlour, Oil Expeller, handicraft
making, hotel, water pumping, photocopy, internet
service centers, noodle making, tea drying,
cardamom drying, making potato chips etc.
 End uses in MHP have been conceptualized as a
promising component to make MHP scheme more
sustainable as connecting more end uses will help to
increase the plant load factor.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


End Use and Income Generation

Sikles Village, an example:


100 kW power plant electrifying
511 households and powering
a) two grinders (7.5kW each)
b) three haulers (two 4kW and
one 7.5kW).
c) two pearlers (7.5kW each),
d) bakery (1.5kW) and
Owner Mr. Kiran Gurung and the Grinder
e) Furniture shop (2.2 kW). machine with motor (7.5kW) at his back
side.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


End Use and Income Generation

Pearler machine with motor of 7.5kW.

Machines running in
Sikles Village without
Hauler machine with motor of 4 kW. any problems

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Rural Enterprise Development

 With the operation of MHP in the rural areas, people


are now more motivated towards establishing the
rural enterprises.
 This has not only benefited the one who established
the enterprises but to the society as a whole for
availing essential services within the vicinity of the
rural villages.
 This might even reverse the migration from the
villages though it has not been proved yet.
 Eg. Barpak Village: installed 50 kW
 Now an additional 100 kW is going to be installed.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Environment Saving

 Though the fossil fuel is an imported commodity and


highly expensive in rural areas due to the
transportation charges, these are commonly used in
wick lamps for lighting.
 As the MHP is installed the kerosene use has been
found drastically reduced and in some cases, it is
found used for emergency purposes only.
 But for cooking application, though electric dekchis
(cooking vessel with inbuilt resistance wire heater)
can be run by MHP, it is not able to be much useful.
 MHP is not yet able to address a large portion of the
fuel wood use in cooking

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Environment Saving

 To a larger extent, MHP is successful in saving the


environment and reducing the indoor air pollution
due to the burning of kerosene for lighting.
 In addition to that, diesel run grinding mills are either
replaced or at the verge of replacement due to the
MHPs.
 The carbon credits due to MHP installation can be
developed as Clean Development Mechanism.
 Bundling together a number of MHPs, the credit
obtained thus could be used for promoting MHPs in
the areas.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Benefits to the Society

 Employment

 Educational programme through TVs

 Health and Hygiene

 Increased study hours

 Increased working hours

 Reduced drudgery of women

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D
 Nepal has developed
technological
capabilities to plan,
design, manufacture
and install MHP.
 It has already gained
experience exporting
MHP equipments to
countries like Bolivia,
Indonesia and more. Cross Flow Turbine ready to be installed.

 Widely used induction generators in Nepal are being


made by modification of commercially available induction
motors which are currently imported from India or abroad.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D

Pelton Turbine (40 kW) coupled


with generator

Pelton Turbine (100 kW) in manufacturer’s


workshop

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D

 Electronic load controller


(ELC) and Induction
Generator Controller are
locally assembled using
the locally manufactured
Controller Boards.
 All other remaining
components are designed,
constructed/manufactured Pelton Turbine assembled with Induction
and erected in Nepal. generator (PELTRIC SET)

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Technology, R & D

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Government Policy
 Despite the fact that the MHP was introduced and
developed by private sector.
 Electrification through MHP has featured increasingly in
the Five year Plans of government of Nepal, which
started from 1980. Then in the Eighth (1992/93 to
1996/97) and Ninth (1997/98 to 2001/02) five year
plans, targets for MHPs were set at 5 MW for each
period.
 In Ninth Five year plan, 63% of the target was achieved.
 The current Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) has set a
target of installing 10 MW MHPs.
 Alternative Energy Promotion Center under Ministry of
Water Resources, formulates policy and is responsible
for the promotion of MHPs in the country.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Government Policy

Involved organisations in the promotion of MHPs

S.N. Agencies Nos.

1. Government Related Agencies 7


dedicated MHP
2. Non-Governmental Development 22
Agencies
3. Manufacturers/Installers 21
4. Consulting Agencies 29
5. Training Institutions 4

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Barriers

Technology, research and development


 very few researches have been conducted in
technological development.
 large gap in knowledge sharing between the
developers, academicians and users.
 turbine erosion due to the silt is ignored in MHPs.
 none of the researches are directed towards
technology improvement of end uses.
 standardization of electromechanical parts has been
there for long but not much exercise has been done
in this sector.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Barriers
Government Policy and Planning
 static energy planning and the long term goal and
strategy seems not properly exercised.
 the increasing energy demand due to the increasing
population may not be fulfilled by the centralized
planning.
 more donor driven rather than demand driven
approach
 yet not able to address the vision of developing end
uses in a sustainable way.
 The lack of education and the training to the end
users.
 lack of proper allocation of fund in the research and
development.
Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development
Conclusions

 There should be no doubt that MHP has been


playing a catalysts role in uplifting the rural
economy.
 MHP is able to contribute significantly in
providing access to the electricity to rural people
in comparison to the national grid.
 It has been very successful in substituting
kerosene for lighting but not much succeed is
gained in the case of cooking.
 Several end use services have been possible
within the rural vicinity due to the MHPs in the
area.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Conclusions
 MHPs have started several activities related to
income generation, which is seen as the prime
necessity in order to raise the rural economy. Also it
has helped in raising employment.
 MHPs are able to develop rural based industries and
enterprises and this helps in reducing the migration
towards the urban area.
 MHPs play a significant role in the reduction of the
indoor air pollution in rural area.
 MHP has good potential to avoid CO2 emission by
reducing import of fossil fuels and thus help to
improve balance of foreign exchange account of the
country.
Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development
Recommendations

 A forum needs to be developed


 financial support in research and development
should be allocated.
 Training on MHPs to the other developing countries
should be explored.
 District energy planning with more energy service
area centers should be planned.
 A turbine testing facility could be developed.
 The research on silt erosion on turbines should be
initiated and efficient micro turbines should be
developed.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Recommendations
 The standardization concept can be initiated from
turbine itself. At least efficiency test of the turbine can
be started in a turbine test center.
 To develop the entrepreneurship, micro-finance
institutions should be mobilized in rural areas.
 End use technologies which can stimulate the rural
economy, should be explored and supported.
 Training on end use operation, repair and
management as well as the end use product marketing
should be initiated.
 Access of electricity from MHP for cooking needs for
rural areas needs to be researched further.
 Development of MHPs should be initiated as CDM.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


Recommendations

 A forum needs to be developed


 financial support in research and development
should be allocated.
 Training on MHPs to the other developing countries
should be explored.
 District energy planning with more energy service
area centers should be planned.
 A turbine testing facility could be developed.
 The research on silt erosion on turbines should be
initiated and efficient micro turbines should be
developed.

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development


THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME !

Micro-Hydro Power for Rural Economic Development