Biological Products/Agents and Their Impact on Human Cells, Tissue and Their Related Diseases

Dr. H. Aziz Djamal MSc.DTM&H.SpMK(K)

Biological Product Induced Human Cells and Tissue Damage :
A. From Inside Human Body : 1. Complement. 2. Antibody. 3. Cytokines

Complement Ex. Extremely pain……Activate the C3 Complement via alternative pathways…C3a and others…anaphylatoxin…receptor on capillary endothelial…vasodilatation..(anaphylactic shock) . increase permeability…massive leakage of the plasma…shock.

Rheumatic Heart Disease .Antibody Ex.Antibody ( mostly IgG) produced inside human body against self antigen. due to similarity structure to the intruder agent (ex. Streptococcus Beta Haemolyticus group A)…Antibody attach to related Ag… activate complement…Inflammation…Tissue injury…Ex.

Ex.Cytokines Mostly activated by biological product from outside human body. Pro-inflammatory citokines (Interleukin 1 and TNF alpha) in Avian influezae infection….Massive destruction of both side of human lung .

From Outside Human Body Biological Product From: A. Bacteria D. Parasite C. Animal B. Virus . Fungi E.B.

activate Complement C3 via alternate pathway…receptor on capillary endothelial…vasodilatation…increase permeability…massive leakage of serum…shock ( anaphylactic shock ) .Bee…very strong venom.Biological Product from Animal Ex. Scorpion. Venoms produced by Snake.

allergenic to some people …induced IgE production…at the following contacts…. . Cytophylic IgE at Mast bound to Allergen… sending signal to Mast Cell…Degranulated Mast Cell…Vasoactive amine release ( Histamine etc )….Target organ….Ex. Cats hair (other products).Vasodilatation on capillary and constriction on bronchus….Hypersensitivity type 1.

Larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides. N.Biological Products of the Parasites Ex.duodenale. americanus ) travel to Lung…caused lung tissue damage and Pneumonitis . Hook worm ( A. Ascaris lumbricoides by products ( Slims) and dead body of adult worm…allergenic …induced IgE production and eosinophilic hypersensitivity. Ex.

Bacterial Product Bacterial Product that Penetrate the host Defence: Capsule Component of Cells Wall Enzymes .

4. Collagenase. Siderophore. 8.Enzymes 1. Hemolysin Streptolysin Coagulase. Bacterial Kinase. 9. 3. 6. Leukocidins. Hyalorunidase. . 7. 5. Lecithinase. 2.

Bacterial product Damaging the cells and tissue Production of Toxin Exotoxin Endotoxin .

b. Citotoxin a. b. Staphylococcal enterotoxin . Enterotoxin a.Three Principle of Exotoxin 1. Diphtheriae toxin. Neurotoxin a. Shiga toxin. Vibrio enterotoxin. b. Tetanus toxin. 2. d. Erythrogenic toxin. Botulinum toxin 3. c. Verotoxin.

2. Inclusion Body. 4.Viral Structural Product 1. 3. Interferon. CPE. Syncitia or Giant Cells. .

Ergot. 2. Aflatoxin.Fungi Biological Product Damaged cells and human tissue 1. Sclerotia. 3. 4. Mycotoxin .

Neisseria gonorrhoe . Haemophylus influenzae. Klebsiella pneumoniae. . Toxycitic capacity.Bacterial capsules Some bacteria produced strong capsule consist of polysacharide polymer : Pneumococcus. Anti-phagocytic activity. Bacillus anthracis etc.

Lipid component ( Polymer of Mycolic acid ) on Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall posses a strong anti-phagocitic activity. . Ex. resist the intracellular digestion. Lipopolysaccharide component of Salmonella typhi cell wall possesed an endotoxic activity.Cell Wall Component That Induced Cell and tissue Damage Ex.

Biological activity of Bacterial enzyme Catalyses the hydrolysis of the related component : Hyaluronidase produced by Staphylococcus sp and Streptococcus sp caused hydrolysis of hyalin component of human tissue such on skin and mucose .

Haemolysin. Streptolysin Making a protein channel on Cytoplasmic membrane…cause cell death .Leukocidin.

Viral component that caused cellular damaged CPE : It is due to the burst of the infected cell – over load of viral component. Inclusion Body : Unassembly viral components such as in Rabies infection. Interferon : Glycoprotein production by viral infected cell that inhibit the role of the remaining receptor . Syncitial / Giant Cell : Fusion of cytoplasmic membrane of the infected host cell by viral unassembly protein.Negri Body.

The Action of an A-B Exotoxin Figure 15.5 .

Damaging capacity of exotoxin Ex. Attach as ligand on the receptor the cell… activate thre formation of porin…release the cytoplasm component… death of the cell . Shiga and Vero toxin.

5 .The Action of an A-B Exotoxin Figure 15.

Neurogenic toxin Tetanus toxin : Block the release of relaxing signal from CNS on neurological synapse…spasstic .Ex. block the release of Glycin on the synapse Botulinum toxin : Block the release of Acetyl choline on the neurological synapse .

Action of Tetanus Neurotoxin – Tetanus causes irreversible muscle _________________ (‘spastic paralysis’ or ‘lockjaw’) .

causes irreversible muscle _________________ (‘flaccid paralysis’). . the most poisonous substance known.Action of Botulinum Neurotoxin • Botulinum toxin.

Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin After bacterial colonization.toxin releasedtoxin get into the intestinal mucosalcell – activate the adenylate enzymatic cascadeproduced cyclic -5-AMP.Enterotoxin activity Ex.activate the secretion of water and electrolyte from the to intestinal lumenproduced severe secretoric diarrhea .accumulation of cell energy.

Action of cholera enterotoxin (cont.) .


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