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Steve Turner

INTRODUCTION

Commissioning versus Maintenance Testing Types of Transformer Differential Protection:

Restrained Phase Differential High Set Phase Differential Ground Differential

INTRODUCTION

Topics:

Transformer Differential Boundary Test (Commissioning) Ground Differential Sensitivity Test (Commissioning/Maintenance) Harmonic Restraint for Transformer Inrush (Maintenance)

Commissioning

Common Practice: Test all numerical relay settings verify settings properly entered Easily facilitated using computer automate test set & store results Hundreds of tests are possible numerical relays have many settings

Commissioning

Final Goal Ensure the transformer is properly protected for the particular application

46

RG

46: Negative-Sequence Overcurrent Element (sees ground faults through bank) RG: Grounding Resistor (Industrial Load)

E + 46 RG ZT I2

Sensitive setting for ground fault overreach for phase-to-phase fault

3RG

46

ZT

ZT

Boundary Test

I1

Y Y 87 * Simulate Through Current Y Y I2

I1 = Winding 1 per unit current (A, B or C-phase) I2 = Winding 2 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)

Differential Characteristic

Operating Equations Id = |I1 I2|, Differential Current Ir = |I1| + |I2|, Restraint Current

2

Differential Characteristic

Id

% = Y *100%

X

X

Ir

Differential Characteristic

Id

Minimum Pickup

Ir

Matrix

[]

Id Ir

[ ][]

1 -1 *

I1 I2

Inverted Matrix

[]

I1 I2

[ ][]

1 - 1

* Id Ir

Differential Characteristic

Test Current Equations

I1 = 0.5*Id + Ir, Winding 1 Test Current (per unit) I2 = -0.5*Id + Ir, Winding 2 Test Current (per unit)

Differential Characteristic

Test Points

Id

Minimum Pickup = 0.2 per unit Slope = 28.6%

4 3 1 Minimum Pickup 2

Ir

Differential Characteristic

Test Points (Per Unit)

Id

1 2 0.2

Ir

0.3

I1

0.4

I2

0.2

0.2

0.4 0.6

0.7

1.4 2.0

0.8

1.6 2.3

0.6

1.2 1.7

3

4

TABLE 1

DAB

I1

Y Y 87

I2

I1 = Winding 1 per unit current (A, B or C-phase) I2 = Winding 2 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)

(Relay Internally Compensates Test Currents)

DAB WINDING

IA1relay = IA1/TAP1 IB1relay = IB1/TAP1 IC1relay = IB1/TAP1

WYE WINDING

IA2relay = (IA2- IB2)/(TAP2*SQRT(3)) IB2relay = (IB2 - IC2)/(TAP2*SQRT(3)) IC2relay = (IC2 - IA2)/(TAP2*SQRT(3))

(Single-Phase Test for A-Phase Element)

IA1 = I1*TAP1 IA2 = I2*TAP2*SQRT(3)

From TABLE 1:

Id

2

Ir

0.7

I1

0.8

I2

0.6

0.2

Sensitivity Test

Directionality (I0 vs. IG)

Directional Element

+90o Internal External

I0

IG

-90o

(Improves Security for CT saturation during external faults)

Pickup

Operate When:

Sensitivity Test Power System Parameters:

Source Impedance (Varies) XT = 10% RF (Varies) Ground Fault Location (5% from Transformer Neutral)

RF Coverage vs. Source Strength

87GD Sensitivity

180 160 140

Fault Resistance

Pickup Setting

IG

R

Directional Element

INTERNAL EXTERNAL

IG2

IOP CTCF*3I0(2)

New Pickup = 1.0 Amps

COMTRADE PLAYBACK Waveform Sources: Events from Numerical Relays Events from Digital Fault Recorders Simulate using Transient Software

Traditional Approach

Auto-Transformer Model

13.2 kV

W3

delta

230 kV

W1

W2

Auto-Transformer Model

Auto-transformer Characteristics

ZHM = 0.01073 per unit ZHL = 0.04777 per unit ZML = 0.03123 per unit ZH = ZM = ZL =

Z HM Z HL Z ML 2 Z HM Z ML Z HL 2 Z HL Z ML Z HM 2

= -0.0029 per unit = 0.0340 per unit

Auto-Transformer Model

600 MVA TAP1 = 345 kV * 240 * SQRT(3) = 4.18

600 MVA

TAP2 = 230 kV * 400 * SQRT(3)

= 3.77

Minimum Pickup* = 0.5 per unit Slope = 25% *Original Pickup = 0.45 per unit

Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux

Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux

Ieven =

2 (I2

2 1/2 I4 )

Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux

A-Phase Current (Winding 2)

CONCLUSIONS

CONCLUSIONS

Transformer Differential Boundary Test (Commissioning) Ground Differential Sensitivity Test (Commissioning/Maintenance) Harmonic Restraint for Transformer Inrush (Maintenance)

QUESTIONS

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