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IEEE Rural Electric 2009

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays


Steve Turner

Beckwith Electric Co., Inc.

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

INTRODUCTION
Commissioning versus Maintenance Testing Types of Transformer Differential Protection:
Restrained Phase Differential High Set Phase Differential Ground Differential

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

INTRODUCTION
Topics:
Transformer Differential Boundary Test (Commissioning) Ground Differential Sensitivity Test (Commissioning/Maintenance) Harmonic Restraint for Transformer Inrush (Maintenance)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Commissioning
Common Practice: Test all numerical relay settings verify settings properly entered Easily facilitated using computer automate test set & store results Hundreds of tests are possible numerical relays have many settings

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Commissioning
Final Goal Ensure the transformer is properly protected for the particular application

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Typical Distribution Transformer

46

RG

46: Negative-Sequence Overcurrent Element (sees ground faults through bank) RG: Grounding Resistor (Industrial Load)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

E + 46 RG ZT I2
Sensitive setting for ground fault overreach for phase-to-phase fault

3RG

46

ZT

ZT

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Transformer Differential Characteristic


Boundary Test
I1
Y Y 87 * Simulate Through Current Y Y I2

I1 = Winding 1 per unit current (A, B or C-phase) I2 = Winding 2 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)

3 elements per function (A, B & C-phase)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Operating Equations Id = |I1 I2|, Differential Current Ir = |I1| + |I2|, Restraint Current
2

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Id
% = Y *100%
X

Y Minimum Pickup (per unit)


X

Ir

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Id

Minimum Pickup

Ir

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Matrix

[]
Id Ir

[ ][]
1 -1 *
I1 I2

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Inverted Matrix

[]
I1 I2

[ ][]
1 - 1
* Id Ir

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Test Current Equations

I1 = 0.5*Id + Ir, Winding 1 Test Current (per unit) I2 = -0.5*Id + Ir, Winding 2 Test Current (per unit)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Test Points
Id
Minimum Pickup = 0.2 per unit Slope = 28.6%

4 3 1 Minimum Pickup 2

Ir

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Test Points (Per Unit)

Id
1 2 0.2

Ir
0.3

I1
0.4

I2
0.2

0.2
0.4 0.6

0.7
1.4 2.0

0.8
1.6 2.3

0.6
1.2 1.7

3
4

TABLE 1

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Delta-Wye Differential Characteristic


DAB

I1
Y Y 87

I2

* Simulate Through Current

I1 = Winding 1 per unit current (A, B or C-phase) I2 = Winding 2 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)

3 elements per relay (A, B & C-phase)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Delta-Wye Differential Characteristic


(Relay Internally Compensates Test Currents)

DAB WINDING
IA1relay = IA1/TAP1 IB1relay = IB1/TAP1 IC1relay = IB1/TAP1

WYE WINDING
IA2relay = (IA2- IB2)/(TAP2*SQRT(3)) IB2relay = (IB2 - IC2)/(TAP2*SQRT(3)) IC2relay = (IC2 - IA2)/(TAP2*SQRT(3))

MVA# TAP# = kV#LL*CTR#*SQRT(3)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Delta-Wye Differential Characteristic


(Single-Phase Test for A-Phase Element)
IA1 = I1*TAP1 IA2 = I2*TAP2*SQRT(3)

From TABLE 1:
Id
2

Ir
0.7

I1
0.8

I2
0.6

0.2

IA1test = 0.8*TAP1 IA2test = 0.6*TAP2*SQRT(3)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Ground Differential Element


Sensitivity Test
Directionality (I0 vs. IG)

Ground Fault Location along Windings

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Ground Differential Element


Directional Element
+90o Internal External

I0

IG

-90o

Disabled if |3I0| less than 140 mA


(Improves Security for CT saturation during external faults)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Ground Differential Element


Pickup
Operate When:

|3I0 IG| > Pickup

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Ground Differential Element


Sensitivity Test Power System Parameters:
Source Impedance (Varies) XT = 10% RF (Varies) Ground Fault Location (5% from Transformer Neutral)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Ground Differential Element


RF Coverage vs. Source Strength
87GD Sensitivity
180 160 140

Fault Resistance

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 Source Impedance IG = 200 mA IG = 500 mA IG = 1 Amp 80 100 120

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Ground Differential Element


Pickup Setting
IG
R

Cold Load Pickup Reclosing into Single-Phase Load

Pickup > Unbalance Directional Element Disabled if 3I0 Low

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

IG2 = 0.3 Amps @ 177o

3I0(2) = 0.136 Amps @ 58o (Threshold = 0.14 Amps)

|CTCF*3I0(2) IG2| = 0.75 Amps Original Pickup = 0.3 Amps

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Directional Element
INTERNAL EXTERNAL

IG2

IOP CTCF*3I0(2)
New Pickup = 1.0 Amps

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush


COMTRADE PLAYBACK Waveform Sources: Events from Numerical Relays Events from Digital Fault Recorders Simulate using Transient Software

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush


Traditional Approach

2nd Harmonic Restraint Cross Phase Blocking

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush


Auto-Transformer Model
13.2 kV

W3
delta

345 kV wye wye

230 kV

W1

W2

600 MVA Auto-Transformer (Tertiary Winding DAC)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush


Auto-Transformer Model
Auto-transformer Characteristics
ZHM = 0.01073 per unit ZHL = 0.04777 per unit ZML = 0.03123 per unit ZH = ZM = ZL =
Z HM Z HL Z ML 2 Z HM Z ML Z HL 2 Z HL Z ML Z HM 2

= 0.0140 per unit


= -0.0029 per unit = 0.0340 per unit

CTRW1 = 1200:5 (wye connected) CTRW2 = 2000:5 (wye connected)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush


Auto-Transformer Model
600 MVA TAP1 = 345 kV * 240 * SQRT(3) = 4.18

600 MVA
TAP2 = 230 kV * 400 * SQRT(3)

= 3.77

Minimum Pickup* = 0.5 per unit Slope = 25% *Original Pickup = 0.45 per unit

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush


Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux

Total Phase Current

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush


Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux

2nd Harmonic Phase Current

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint

Ieven =

2 (I2

2 1/2 I4 )

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush


Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux

4th Harmonic Phase Current

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush


A-Phase Current (Winding 2)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

CONCLUSIONS

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

CONCLUSIONS
Transformer Differential Boundary Test (Commissioning) Ground Differential Sensitivity Test (Commissioning/Maintenance) Harmonic Restraint for Transformer Inrush (Maintenance)

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

QUESTIONS