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# IEEE Rural Electric 2009

Steve Turner

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

INTRODUCTION
Commissioning versus Maintenance Testing Types of Transformer Differential Protection:
Restrained Phase Differential High Set Phase Differential Ground Differential

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

INTRODUCTION
Topics:
Transformer Differential Boundary Test (Commissioning) Ground Differential Sensitivity Test (Commissioning/Maintenance) Harmonic Restraint for Transformer Inrush (Maintenance)

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Commissioning
Common Practice: Test all numerical relay settings verify settings properly entered Easily facilitated using computer automate test set & store results Hundreds of tests are possible numerical relays have many settings

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Commissioning
Final Goal Ensure the transformer is properly protected for the particular application

## Typical Distribution Transformer

46

RG

46: Negative-Sequence Overcurrent Element (sees ground faults through bank) RG: Grounding Resistor (Industrial Load)

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

E + 46 RG ZT I2
Sensitive setting for ground fault overreach for phase-to-phase fault

3RG

46

ZT

ZT

## Transformer Differential Characteristic

Boundary Test
I1
Y Y 87 * Simulate Through Current Y Y I2

I1 = Winding 1 per unit current (A, B or C-phase) I2 = Winding 2 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Operating Equations Id = |I1 I2|, Differential Current Ir = |I1| + |I2|, Restraint Current
2

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Id
% = Y *100%
X

X

Ir

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Id

Minimum Pickup

Ir

Matrix

[]
Id Ir

[ ][]
1 -1 *
I1 I2

Inverted Matrix

[]
I1 I2

[ ][]
1 - 1
* Id Ir

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Test Current Equations

I1 = 0.5*Id + Ir, Winding 1 Test Current (per unit) I2 = -0.5*Id + Ir, Winding 2 Test Current (per unit)

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Test Points
Id
Minimum Pickup = 0.2 per unit Slope = 28.6%

4 3 1 Minimum Pickup 2

Ir

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Test Points (Per Unit)

Id
1 2 0.2

Ir
0.3

I1
0.4

I2
0.2

0.2
0.4 0.6

0.7
1.4 2.0

0.8
1.6 2.3

0.6
1.2 1.7

3
4

TABLE 1

DAB

I1
Y Y 87

I2

## * Simulate Through Current

I1 = Winding 1 per unit current (A, B or C-phase) I2 = Winding 2 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)

## Delta-Wye Differential Characteristic

(Relay Internally Compensates Test Currents)

DAB WINDING
IA1relay = IA1/TAP1 IB1relay = IB1/TAP1 IC1relay = IB1/TAP1

WYE WINDING
IA2relay = (IA2- IB2)/(TAP2*SQRT(3)) IB2relay = (IB2 - IC2)/(TAP2*SQRT(3)) IC2relay = (IC2 - IA2)/(TAP2*SQRT(3))

## Delta-Wye Differential Characteristic

(Single-Phase Test for A-Phase Element)
IA1 = I1*TAP1 IA2 = I2*TAP2*SQRT(3)

From TABLE 1:
Id
2

Ir
0.7

I1
0.8

I2
0.6

0.2

## Ground Differential Element

Sensitivity Test
Directionality (I0 vs. IG)

## Ground Differential Element

Directional Element
+90o Internal External

I0

IG

-90o

## Disabled if |3I0| less than 140 mA

(Improves Security for CT saturation during external faults)

Pickup
Operate When:

## Ground Differential Element

Sensitivity Test Power System Parameters:
Source Impedance (Varies) XT = 10% RF (Varies) Ground Fault Location (5% from Transformer Neutral)

## Ground Differential Element

RF Coverage vs. Source Strength
87GD Sensitivity
180 160 140

Fault Resistance

Pickup Setting
IG
R

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Directional Element
INTERNAL EXTERNAL

IG2

IOP CTCF*3I0(2)
New Pickup = 1.0 Amps

## Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush

COMTRADE PLAYBACK Waveform Sources: Events from Numerical Relays Events from Digital Fault Recorders Simulate using Transient Software

## Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush

Auto-Transformer Model
13.2 kV

W3
delta

230 kV

W1

W2

## Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush

Auto-Transformer Model
Auto-transformer Characteristics
ZHM = 0.01073 per unit ZHL = 0.04777 per unit ZML = 0.03123 per unit ZH = ZM = ZL =
Z HM Z HL Z ML 2 Z HM Z ML Z HL 2 Z HL Z ML Z HM 2

## = 0.0140 per unit

= -0.0029 per unit = 0.0340 per unit

## Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush

Auto-Transformer Model
600 MVA TAP1 = 345 kV * 240 * SQRT(3) = 4.18

600 MVA
TAP2 = 230 kV * 400 * SQRT(3)

= 3.77

Minimum Pickup* = 0.5 per unit Slope = 25% *Original Pickup = 0.45 per unit

## Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush

Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux

## Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush

Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux

Ieven =

2 (I2

2 1/2 I4 )

## Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush

Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux

## Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush

A-Phase Current (Winding 2)

CONCLUSIONS

## Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

CONCLUSIONS
Transformer Differential Boundary Test (Commissioning) Ground Differential Sensitivity Test (Commissioning/Maintenance) Harmonic Restraint for Transformer Inrush (Maintenance)

QUESTIONS