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1. Reproduction The biological process of producing offspring in all living organisms. It increases the number of individuals of a species and maintains the continuity of organisms. 2. Two types of reproduction : Sexual reproduction Asexual reproduction

1. Asexual reproduction Involves only one individual. Does not involve the fusion of gametes.(fertilisation does not occur) new individual formed is exactly the same as the parent. Advantage Organisms can be reproduced from only one individual only. Disadvantage The offspring will inherit unwanted traits from the parents.

Types of asexual reproduction

Examples of organism

1. Binary fission 2. Budding 3. Spore formation 4. Regeneration

B_____________, A_____________ P_____________, a_____________ Ye ____________, H_________ Mu_______(mould), Mu____________ St____________, Pl____________

5. Vegetative reproduction

Flowering plant e.g : grass, tapioca , ginger

1. Binary fission A mature cell performs cell division to produce 2 daughter cells The daughter cells have same characteristics as parent cell Starts with nucleus division and followed by cytoplasm division Examples : amoeba, paramecium, bacteria

2. Budding The parent organism forms a bud in itself. The bud grows and eventually separates from the parent as a new individual. Examples : hydra, yeast 3. Spore formation A lot of spores are produced will germinate and grow into new individuals Examples : ferns, mosses, fungi

4. Regeneration / rejuvenation A new individual grows from a part which has been detached from the parent. Examples : planaria, starfish 5. Vegetative reproduction New shoots grow out and obtain food from the parent plant and eventually separate into new plants. Examples : rhizome, bulb, tuber, tap root, corm, runner, stem cutting

D : Process in which a new individual/offspring is produced after a male reproductive cell (sperm) fuses with a female reproductive cell (ovum)
reproductive cell = gamete

The combination of the male and female gametes produces a zygote.

Male gamete Female gamete
nucleus of male gamete fuses with the nucleus of the female gamete.

Fertilization Zygote New organism

Sexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction Similarities

produces new individuals Differences Two Requires male and female gametes Higher Inherited from both parents Number of parent One Gametes Does not require gametes Same as the parent

Level of organisms Lower New individuals


Fertilization the fusion of the nucleus of a male gamete and the nucleus of a female gamete to form zygote. - Male gamete is called sperm and produced in testis. - Female gamete is called ovum/egg cell and produced in ovary. 2 Type of fertilization Internal fertilization
Occur in the body of female organism

External fertilization
Occur outside the body of the female organism.




Takes place when the gametes fuse in the body of the female Animals : mammals, birds, reptiles and insects These animals produce very few gametes because : Gametes are protected in the female body Chance of fertilization of the egg cells by sperms is very high


(b) (c)


Takes place when the gametes fuse outside the body of the parents Animals : amphibians and fish Gametes are shed into water and fertilization occurs in the water Plenty of gametes are produced because many of the gametes die / eaten by other animals before fertilization

1. Puberty Stage of humna growth in which the human reproductive organs start to produce sex cells and sex hormones. 2. During puberty, physical, physiological and emotional changes occur in the body. 3. Puberty in boys: About 12 -14 years old. Caused by testosterone. Penis and testis become bigger Begins to produce sperm Hair grow in the pubic area and on the armpits Grow a beard Voice-box enlarged and voice deepens Show interest in the opposite sex

4. Puberty in girls: About the age of 10 -12. Caused by oestrogen. Menstruation begins The breasts and buttocks increase in size Hair grow in the pubic area and on the armpits Develops a feminine voice Show interest in boys

1. Menstruation The periodic discharge of blood from the uterus through vagina. Starts from puberty and stops at about 50 years old. Menopause takes place the ovaries do not produce any more egg cells / ova. 2. Menstrual cycle Occurs in 28 days Due to changes in the lining of the uterus

3. Ovulation the egg cell is usually released from the 13th to the 15th day. 4. Fertile period the ovulation period together with 2 days before and 2 days after and the chance of fertilizing an egg cell is very high. 5. If the egg cell is not fertilized: (a) The tissues and blood vessels on the uterus lining break away (b) They are discharged together with the egg cell as menses.

6. If the egg cell is fertilized : (a) The tissues and blood vessels do not break away (b) The zygote moves into the uterus and becomes implanted in the uterus wall 7. The absence of menstruation is the first sign of pregnancy.

1. Fertilization the process of a sperm fusing with an egg cell to form a zygote. Sperm vagina cervix uterus fallopian tube fertilization zygote 2. Cell division occurs as the zygote moves down the Fallopian tube towards the uterus. 3. The zygote divides into 2 cells, then 4 cells and so on until it becomes embryo.



3. (a)


Implantation the embryo attaches itself to the wall of uterus by means of a structure called placenta. The placenta is connected to the embryo by the umbilical cord. The function of amniotic fluid: Acts as a shock absorber and protects the embryo Buoys up the embryo so that it can move freely during the development


2. (a)

(c) (d)

Gestation period the period from fertilization to birth During birth : The uterus wall contracts The membrane surrounding the foetus break The cervix open The baby is pushed out through the vagina

Class of food Protein Carbohydrate and fats Iron Calcium and Phosphorus Vitamins

Function To build tissues for the growth To supply energy To build red blood cells Formation of strong bones Ensure the health and increase the resistance against diseases To prevent constipation

Food fibre

Prenatal care Avoid too much carbohydrate Avoid too much sugar and salt Avoid smoking Avoid drinking alcohol Avoid taking drugs

Reason Foetus becomes too fat

Suffer from high blood pressure Baby thin and small Brain damage Foetus deformed / miscarriage

1. Sterility inability of a man / woman to have children. 2. Sterility in man is due to : (a) Low sperm count (b) Weak sperms (c) Impotence (d) Blocked sperm ducts 3. Sterility in woman is due to : (a) Blocked fallopian tubes (b) Failure of ovaries to produce ova (c) Failure of embryo to get implanted in the uterus

1. In vitro fertilization When fallopian tubes are blocked. A mature egg cell is taken and fertilized by sperms in a petri dish. The zygote the is implanted into the uterus. The baby born is called as test tube baby. 2. Hormone treatment Woman does not ovulate. Hormones are injected to stimulate the ovaries and cause egg cells to be released.

3. GIFT method (gamete intrafallopian transfer) Woman cannot conceive. Sperms are transferred into the fallopian tubes of another woman 4. Use of ovum from donor Womans egg cells do not function. The egg cell of a donor is implanted into fallopian tube and fertilized by the sperms.

5. Surgery to remove blockage The blockeage in fallopian tubes / sperm ducts is removed. 6. Counselling Man may be suffering from erectile dysfunction due to emotional and psychological reasons. Counselling is given to solve the problems.

1. Birth control the prevention of unwanted pregnancy. 2. Methods used by men: (a) Withdrawal withdraw his penis from the vagina just before he ejaculates the sperms (b) Condom a strong latex tube is used to cover the erect penis to traps the sperms Reliable, cheap and prevent syphilis and AIDS (c) Ligation of sperm ducts (vasectomy) Sperm ducts are tied up to prevent the travel of sperms in sperm ducts

3. Methods used by women (a) The rhythm method sexual intercourse is avoided during the fertile phase (b) Contraceptive pills contain female sex hormones to prevent the ovaries from releasing ova (c) Spermicides inserted into the vagina to kill sperms (d) Diaphragm made of thin rubber and placed in the vagina to close the cervix and sperms cannot pass through

(e) Intrauterine device (IUD) A flexible plastic coil which is fitted into the uterus and done by a doctor to prevent a zygote from attaching to the uterus wall Can cause severe bleeding during menstruation, the embryo develop in the fallopian tube and infection of the pelvis (f) Ligation of the fallopian tubes (tubectomy) - Fallopian tubes are tied

1. Good effects : Helps the young to prevent unwanted pregnancies Allows a couple to plan the size of family Allows poor family to control the number of children Allows woman in poor healthy to decide the number of children 2. Bad effects : Misused by the young Lead to grey society




4. 5.

Helps to find safer and more effective methods of overcoming sterility and birth control Control the ever-increasing world population If population is large, difficulty in educating, providing health services, feeding and finding jobs Enable us to live healthier and longer To lower infant deaths especially in poor country

1. Flower the reproductive organ of flowering plants 2. There are 2 types of flowers: (a) Bisexual flowers Contain both the stamens and the pistils Examples: hibiscus, morning glory (b) Unisexual flowers Either the male / female flowers Examples: maize flower, oil palm

STAMEN - Male reproductive system

ANTHER - To produce pollen grains (male gametes)

FILAMENT - To support the position of anther

PISTILS - Female reproductive system

STIGMA - To receive pollen grains from anther

STYLE - To support the position of stigma

OVARY - Produce ovule (female gametes)


Pollination the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma. 2 type of pollination : * Self-pollination the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower / another flower in the same plant.

* Cross-pollination the transfer of pollen grains between flowers on 2 separate plants which are of the same species.

Involves the transference of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma




Only one plant Weak Posses characteristics of only one plant

Characteristics of seedling

Differences Number of plants involved Offspring

Two plants Healthier Posses characteristics of both parent plants

Self-pollination Does not produce new varieties Not resistant to diseases


Cross -pollination

Variety of offspring Produces new varieties Resistance to diseases Adaptation to environment Examples

Cannot adapt to environmental changes

More resistant to diseases Can adapt to environmental changes

-Masmadu corn -Tenera oil -Paddy plants

5. Advantages of cross-pollination: (a) Allows combination of the characteristics of both parent plants (b) Produces plants that posses GOOD characteristics such as: Produce seeds of better quality More resistant to diseases Able to survive when environmental changes occur Produce fruits of better quality in term of size and taste

6. Examples: (a) Tenera oil palm from Dura and Pisifera (b) Masmadu corn bigger and sweeter (c) Paddy plants (MR103, MR106, MR185) more and better seeds

1. 2. 3.

Plant cannot move, so they need agent to help in pollination. Examples of pollinating agents are insects, wind, water and birds. Differences in the characteristics between insect-pollinated and wind-pollinated flowers:

Diagram Size Colour of petal

Insect-pollinated flower

Wind-pollinated flower

Large Brightly

Small Dull

Characteristics Scent Production of nectar Stigma

Insect-pollinated flower Scented Produces nectar Sticky and lies inside the flower

Wind-pollinated flower Not scented No nectar Long. Feathery and protrude outside the flower Long and slender Dangles outside the flower Long and slender

Anther Filament

Short and strong

Inside the flower Short and strong

Characteristics Pollen grain



large, sticky and has rough ,surface -small quantities are required Short

Insect-pollinated flower

small, light and smooth - large quantities


Wind-pollinated flower


After pollination ,fertilisation take place

Pollen grain has landed on a stigma

Stigma produces a sticky sugary fluid
Pollen grain absorbs the sugary fluid and pollen tube grows down the ovary

Fertilization takes place Fertilized ovule becomes a seed and ovary becomes a fruit

4.9 Development of Fruit and Seeds in Plants

Stamens Anthers Pollen grains
Male gametes Fertilization Pistils Ovary Ovules Female gametes


New plants

inside seeds


Product of fertilised ovule

Part of a seed Seed Coat i) Hilum ii) Micropyle iii) Testa Embryo : i) Plumule ii) Radicle Cotyledon and endosperm

Sticks the ovary Allows the entry of water Protects the seed Grows to become shoots Grows to become roots Store food for germination



Germination - the growth and development of a seed to form a young plant. 2. There are 2 types of germination: a) Epigeal germination the cotyledons are carried above the ground b) Hypogeal germination the cotyledons remain below the surface of the soil

3. Germination needs water, oxygen, and a suitable temperature. 4. The sequence in the germination: a) Cotyledon absorbs water, expands and cracks open the testa b) Radicle grows downwards to form roots c) Plumule grows upwards to form shoots d) Cotyledon shrinks and drops off


2. a) b) c) d)

Vegetative reproduction asexual reproduction that involves the detachment of some parts of a plant to become a new plant. Vegetative parts used: Stems above the soil : runners and stem cutting Stems below the soil : rhizomes, tubers, bulbs and corms Roots : suckers Leaves

3. Advantages: a) Can produce new plants within a shorter period b) Does not need the help of external agents such as insects / wind for pollination c) Involves only one parent and no fertilization is required d) New plants can survive in harsh condition e) Good qualities of the parent plant directly passed down to the daughter plant 4. disadvantages: a) Have less variety compared to the plants produced by seeds b) The lack of dispersal mechanism may cause the overcrowding of new plants c) No variation